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Installing And Using OpenVZ On Ubuntu 10.04


In this HowTo I will describe how to prepare an Ubuntu 10.04 server for OpenVZ. With OpenVZ you can create multiple Virtual Private Servers (VPS) on the same hardware, similar to Xen and the Linux Vserver project. OpenVZ is the open-source branch of Virtuozzo, a commercial virtualization solution used by many providers that offer virtual servers. The OpenVZ kernel patch is licensed under the GPL license, and the user-level tools are under the QPL license.

This howto is meant as a practical guide; it does not cover the theoretical backgrounds. They are treated in a lot of other documents in the web.

This document comes without warranty of any kind! I want to say that this is not the only way of setting up such a system. There are many ways of achieving this goal but this is the way I take. I do not issue any guarantee that this will work for you!

 

1 Preliminary Note

I’m using an x86_64 (amd64) system here. If you are on an i386 system, a few commands will be slightly different – I have added annotations to that parts.

 

2 Become root

Type

sudo su

to become root (or prepend all commands in this tutorial with the string sudo).

 

3 Change The Default Shell

/bin/sh is a symlink to /bin/dash, however we need /bin/bash, not /bin/dash. Therefore we do this:

dpkg-reconfigure dash

Install dash as /bin/sh? <– No

 

 

4 Disable AppArmor

AppArmor is a security extension (similar to SELinux) that should provide extended security. In my opinion you don’t need it to configure a secure system, and it usually causes more problems than advantages (think of it after you have done a week of trouble-shooting because some service wasn’t working as expected, and then you find out that everything was ok, only AppArmor was causing the problem). Therefore I disable it.

We can disable it like this:

/etc/init.d/apparmor stop
update-rc.d -f apparmor remove
apt-get remove apparmor apparmor-utils

 

5 Installing OpenVZ

Unfortunately there are no OpenVZ packages in the official Ubuntu 10.04 repositories, therefore we have to build the OpenVZ kernel and the OpenVZ tools (vzctl, vzquota, vzpkg) ourselves.

First, run

uname -r

to find out your currently installed kernel version:

root@server1:~# uname -r
2.6.32-24-server
root@server1:~#

As you see, I have 2.6.32-24-server installed.

Now we install the required packages to build a new kernel:

aptitude install kernel-package libncurses5-dev fakeroot wget bzip2 module-assistant debhelper

aptitude build-dep linux-image-2.6.32-24-server

(Please make sure that you use the correct kernel version in the last command, i.e., the kernel version that uname -r shows.)

Next we download the 2.6.32 kernel sources plus the OpenVZ kernel patch and the official config for the OpenVZ kernel:

cd /usr/src
wget http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.6/linux-2.6.32.tar.bz2
m-a prepare
wget http://download.openvz.org/kernel/branches/2.6.32/2.6.32-belyayev.1/patches/patch-belyayev.1-combined.gz
wget http://download.openvz.org/kernel/branches/2.6.32/2.6.32-belyayev.1/configs/kernel-2.6.32-x86_64.config.ovz

Then run

kernel-packageconfig
echo “CONCURRENCY_LEVEL := 2” >> /etc/kernel-pkg.conf

(Use numer_of_cpu_cores + 1 for the CONCURRENCY_LEVEL. I have just one CPU core on my test system, so this makes 1 + 1 = 2.)

Now we patch the kernel sources and prepare the build:

tar -xpf linux-2.6.32.tar.bz2
mv linux-2.6.32 linux-2.6.32-openvz
rm -f linux
ln -s linux-2.6.32-openvz linux
cd linux
gunzip -dc ../patch-belyayev.1-combined.gz | patch -p1
cp -rf ../kernel-2.6.32-x86_64.config.ovz .config
make oldconfig

Then we build the OpenVZ kernel with the following command:

fakeroot make-kpkg –initrd –append-to-version=-ovz32 –revision=1.0 kernel_image kernel_headers

This can take some time, so please be patient.

Run

cd ..
ls -l *.deb

afterwards to see the new .deb packages of the OpenVZ kernel:

root@server1:/usr/src# ls -l *.deb
-rw-r–r– 1 root src  6300866 2010-08-18 19:18 linux-headers-2.6.32.14-ovz32_1.0_amd64.deb
-rw-r–r– 1 root src 26274680 2010-08-18 19:12 linux-image-2.6.32.14-ovz32_1.0_amd64.deb
root@server1:/usr/src#

Install the new kernel as follows:

dpkg -i linux-image-2.6.32.14-ovz32_1.0_amd64.deb linux-headers-2.6.32.14-ovz32_1.0_amd64.deb

Then update the initrd and the GRUB bootloader configuration:

mkinitramfs -k 2.6.32.14-ovz32 -o /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32.14-ovz32
update-grub

Next we build the OpenVZ tools (vzctl, vzquota, vzpkg). First we install some prerequisites:

aptitude install git-core git-buildpackage automake autoconf libtool liblockfile-simple-perl cstream liblog-agent-perl ssl-cert postfix rpm yum alien

vzctl can be built as follows:

cd
git clone git://git.openvz.org/pub/vzctl vzctl
cd vzctl
./autogen.sh
./configure –enable-bashcomp –enable-logrotate
make
make install
make install-debian

vzquota can be built as follows:

cd
git clone git://git.openvz.org/pub/vzquota vzquota
cd vzquota
make
make install

And vzpkg can be built as follows:

cd
git clone git://git.openvz.org/pub/vzpkg vzpkg
cd vzpkg
make install

Now we create the system startup links for OpenVZ:

update-rc.d vz defaults

For compatibility reasons, we create the following symlink:

ln -s /vz /var/lib/vz

Open /etc/sysctl.conf and make sure that you have the following settings in it:

vi /etc/sysctl.conf

[...]
net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter=1
net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts=1
net.ipv4.conf.default.forwarding=1
net.ipv4.conf.default.proxy_arp = 0
net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
kernel.sysrq = 1
net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects = 1
net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects = 0
net.ipv4.conf.eth0.proxy_arp=1
[...]

If you need to modify /etc/sysctl.conf, run

sysctl -p

afterwards.

The following step is important if the IP addresses of your virtual machines are from a different subnet than the host system’s IP address. If you don’t do this, networking will not work in the virtual machines!

Open /etc/vz/vz.conf and set NEIGHBOUR_DEVS to all:

vi /etc/vz/vz.conf

[...]
NEIGHBOUR_DEVS=all
[...]

Finally, reboot the system:

reboot

If your system reboots without problems, then everything is fine!

After the reboot, become root again:

sudo su

Run

uname -r

and your new OpenVZ kernel should show up:

root@server1:~# uname -r
2.6.32.14-ovz32
root@server1:~#

6 Using OpenVZ

Before we can create virtual machines with OpenVZ, we need to have a template for the distribution that we want to use in the virtual machines in the /vz/template/cache directory. The virtual machines will be created from that template.

You can find a list of precreated templates on http://wiki.openvz.org/Download/template/precreated, http://ftp.openvz.org/template/precreated/contrib/, and http://bodhizazen.fivebean.net/openvz/.

I want to use Ubuntu 10.04 in my virtual machines, so I download an Ubuntu 10.04 template:

cd /vz/template/cache
wget http://download.openvz.org/template/precreated/ubuntu-10.04-x86_64.tar.gz

(If your host is an i386 system, you cannot use an amd64 template – you must use i386 templates then!)

I will now show you the basic commands for using OpenVZ.

To set up a VPS from the Ubuntu 10.04 template, run:

vzctl create 101 –ostemplate ubuntu-10.04-x86_64 –config basic

The 101 must be a uniqe ID – each virtual machine must have its own unique ID. You can use the last part of the virtual machine’s IP address for it. For example, if the virtual machine’s IP address is 192.168.0.101, you use 101 as the ID.

If you want to have the vm started at boot, run

vzctl set 101 –onboot yes –save

To set a hostname and IP address for the vm, run:

vzctl set 101 –hostname test.example.com –save
vzctl set 101 –ipadd 192.168.0.101 –save

Next we set the number of sockets to 120 and assign a few nameservers to the vm:

vzctl set 101 –numothersock 120 –save
vzctl set 101 –nameserver 145.253.2.75 –nameserver 8.8.8.8 –save

(Instead of using the vzctl set commands, you can as well directly edit the vm’s configuration file which is stored in the /etc/vz/conf directory. If the ID of the vm is 101, then the configuration file is /etc/vz/conf/101.conf.)

To start the vm, run

vzctl start 101

To set a root password for the vm, execute

vzctl exec 101 passwd

You can now either connect to the vm via SSH (e.g. with PuTTY), or you enter it as follows:

vzctl enter 101

To leave the vm’s console, type

exit

To stop a vm, run

vzctl stop 101

To restart a vm, run

vzctl restart 101

To delete a vm from the hard drive (it must be stopped before you can do this), run

vzctl destroy 101

To get a list of your vms and their statuses, run

vzlist -a

root@server1:~# vzlist -a
VEID      NPROC STATUS  IP_ADDR         HOSTNAME
101          5 running 192.168.0.101   test.example.com
root@server1:~#

To find out about the resources allocated to a vm, run

vzctl exec 101 cat /proc/user_beancounters

root@server1:~# vzctl exec 101 cat /proc/user_beancounters
Version: 2.5
uid  resource           held    maxheld    barrier      limit    failcnt
101:  kmemsize         593615    1721162   11055923   11377049          0
lockedpages           0          0        256        256          0
privvmpages        2111       2491      65536      69632          0
shmpages            645        661      21504      21504          0
dummy                 0          0          0          0          0
numproc               6         11        240        240          0
physpages          1124       1427          0 2147483647          0
vmguarpages           0          0      33792 2147483647          0
oomguarpages       1124       1427      26112 2147483647          0
numtcpsock            2          2        360        360          0
numflock              0          1        188        206          0
numpty                1          2         16         16          0
numsiginfo            0          2        256        256          0
tcpsndbuf         24640      24640    1720320    2703360          0
tcprcvbuf         32768          0    1720320    2703360          0
othersockbuf       4480      21760    1126080    2097152          0
dgramrcvbuf           0       8384     262144     262144          0
numothersock          3          7        120        120          0
dcachesize        53848      57912    3409920    3624960          0
numfile             184        254       9312       9312          0
dummy                 0          0          0          0          0
dummy                 0          0          0          0          0
dummy                 0          0          0          0          0
numiptent            10         10        128        128          0
root@server1:~#

The failcnt column is very important, it should contain only zeros; if it doesn’t, this means that the vm needs more resources than are currently allocated to the vm. Open the vm’s configuration file in /etc/vz/conf and raise the appropriate resource, then restart the vm.

To find out more about the vzctl command, run

man vzctl

 

  • OpenVZ: http://openvz.org/
  • Ubuntu: http://www.ubuntu.com/

 

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