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Installing Debian Wheezy (testing) With debootstrap From A Grml Live Linux


This tutorial explains how to install Debian Wheezy (testing) with the help of debootstrap from a Grml Live Linux system (like it is used as a rescue system at Webtropia). This should work – with minor changes – for other Debian and Ubuntu versions as well. By following this guide, it is possible to configure the system to your needs (OS version, partitioning, RAID, LVM, etc.) instead of depending on the few pre-configured images that your server provider offers.

I do not issue any guarantee that this will work for you!

 

1 Preliminary Note

The server I’m using in this tutorial has two hard drives. I want to use software RAID1 and LVM for this server.

Before you boot the system into rescue mode, you should take note of its network settings so that you can use the same network settings for the new system. For example, if you use Debian or Ubuntu on the system, take a look at /etc/network/interfaces:

cat /etc/network/interfaces

It could look as follows:

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
     address <ip_address>
     netmask <netmask>
     broadcast <broadcast>
     gateway <gateway>
iface eth0 inet6 static
  address <ipv6_address>
  netmask 64
  up ip -6 route add <ipv6_gateway> dev eth0
  down ip -6 route del <ipv6_gateway> dev eth0
  up ip -6 route add default via <ipv6_gateway> dev eth0
  down ip -6 route del default via <ipv6_gateway> dev eth0

 

2 Partitioning

Now boot into the Grml rescue system.

In the rescue system, let’s check of software RAID and LVM are in use for the hard drives (if so, we need to remove them before we partition the hard drives):

The commands

lvdisplay

vgdisplay

pvdisplay

tell you if there are logical volumes, volume groups, and block devices being used for LVM. If so, you can remove them as follows (make sure you use the correct data, as displayed by the three above commands):

lvremove /dev/vg0/root

vgremove vg0

pvremove /dev/md1

Let’s check if software RAID is in use:

cat /proc/mdstat

If the output is as below, you have to RAID devices, /dev/md0 and /dev/md1 which have to be removed:

root@grml ~ # cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [linear] [raid0] [raid1] [raid10] [multipath]
md0 : active raid1 sda1[0] sdb1[1]
530048 blocks [2/2] [UU]

md1 : active raid1 sda2[0] sdb2[1]
104856192 blocks [2/2] [UU]

unused devices: <none>
root@grml ~ #

Remove them as follows:

mdadm –stop /dev/md0
mdadm –stop /dev/md1

Double-check that no RAID devices are left:

cat /proc/mdstat

root@grml ~ # cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [linear] [raid0] [raid1] [raid10] [multipath]
unused devices: <none>
root@grml ~ #

Let’s take a look at the current partitioning:

fdisk -l

root@grml ~ # fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sdb: 2000.4 GB, 2000398934016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243201 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x957081d4

Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1               1          66      530112+  fd  Linux raid autodetect
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
Partition 1 does not start on physical sector boundary.
/dev/sdb2              66       13120   104856256   fd  Linux raid autodetect

Disk /dev/sda: 2000.4 GB, 2000398934016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243201 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000cdcbd

Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1               1          66      530112+  fd  Linux raid autodetect
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
Partition 1 does not start on physical sector boundary.
/dev/sda2              66       13120   104856256   fd  Linux raid autodetect
root@grml ~ #

Because I have two identical hard drives, I want to use software RAID1 plus LVM (because of its felxibility). Because LVM cannot be used on the boot partition, I have to create a separate /boot partition where I use RAID1 without LVM.

To do this, I delete the existing partitions from /dev/sda, create two new ones (a small one of about 512MB for /boot and a large one; you could of course use all remaining space for the large partition, but I tend to leave some space unused because bad sectors tend to appear in the outer areas of a spinning disk – if you use an SSD, it’s ok to use the whole disk) with Linux raid autodetect as the partition type:

root@grml ~ # fdisk /dev/sda

The device presents a logical sector size that is smaller than
the physical sector size. Aligning to a physical sector (or optimal
I/O) size boundary is recommended, or performance may be impacted.

WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It’s strongly recommended to
switch off the mode (command ‘c’) and change display units to
sectors (command ‘u’).

Command (m for help): <– d
Partition number (1-4): <– 1

Command (m for help): <– d
Selected partition 2

Command (m for help): <– n
Command action
e   extended
p   primary partition (1-4)

<– p
Partition number (1-4): <– 1
First cylinder (1-243201, default 1): <– ENTER
Using default value 1
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-243201, default 243201):
 <– +512M

Command (m for help): <– t
Selected partition 1
Hex code (type L to list codes):
 <– fd
Changed system type of partition 1 to fd (Linux raid autodetect)

Command (m for help): <– n
Command action
e   extended
p   primary partition (1-4)

<– p
Partition number (1-4): <– 2
First cylinder (66-243201, default 66): <– ENTER
Using default value 66
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (66-243201, default 243201):
 <– 240000 (I tend to leave some space unused here)

Command (m for help): <– t
Partition number (1-4): <– 2
Hex code (type L to list codes): <– fd
Changed system type of partition 2 to fd (Linux raid autodetect)

Command (m for help): <– w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

WARNING: If you have created or modified any DOS 6.x
partitions, please see the fdisk manual page for additional
information.
Syncing disks.
root@grml ~ #

Next I run…

sfdisk -d /dev/sda | sfdisk –force /dev/sdb

… to copy the partitioning scheme from /dev/sda to /dev/sdb so that they are identical on both disks.

Run…

mdadm –zero-superblock /dev/sda1
mdadm –zero-superblock /dev/sda2
mdadm –zero-superblock /dev/sdb1
mdadm –zero-superblock /dev/sdb2

… to remove any remainders from previous RAID arrays from the partitions.

Now we create the RAID array /dev/md0 from /dev/sda1 and /dev/sdb1

mdadm –create /dev/md0 –level=1 –raid-disks=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1

… and /dev/md1 from /dev/sda2 and /dev/sdb2:

mdadm –create /dev/md1 –level=1 –raid-disks=2 /dev/sda2 /dev/sdb2

Let’s check with:

cat /proc/mdstat

As you see, we have two new RAID1 arrays:

root@grml ~ # cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [linear] [raid0] [raid1] [raid10] [multipath]
md1 : active raid1 sdb2[1] sda2[0]
1927269760 blocks [2/2] [UU]
[>………………..]  resync =  0.0% (347136/1927269760) finish=185.0min speed=173568K/sec

md0 : active raid1 sdb1[1] sda1[0]
530048 blocks [2/2] [UU]

unused devices: <none>
root@grml ~ #

Let’s put an ext4 filesystem on /dev/md0:

mkfs.ext4 /dev/md0

Prepare /dev/md1 for LVM:

pvcreate /dev/md1

Create the volume group vg0:

vgcreate vg0 /dev/md1

Create a logical volume for / with a size of 100GB:

lvcreate -n root -L 100G vg0

Create a logical volume for swap with a size of 10GB:

lvcreate -n swap -L 10G vg0

Run:

lvscan

If all logical volumes are shown as ACTIVE, everything is fine:

root@grml ~ # lvscan
ACTIVE            ‘/dev/vg0/root’ [100,00 GiB] inherit
ACTIVE            ‘/dev/vg0/swap’ [10,00 GiB] inherit
root@grml ~ #

If not, run…

vgchange -ay

… and check with lvscan again.

Next create filesystems on /dev/vg0/root and /dev/vg0/swap:

mkfs.ext4 /dev/vg0/root
mkswap /dev/vg0/swap

Mount the root volume to /mnt, create a few diretories and mount /dev/md0 to /mnt/boot:

mount /dev/vg0/root /mnt
cd /mnt
mkdir boot
mkdir proc
mkdir dev
mkdir sys
mkdir home
mount /dev/md0 boot/

Create an fstab for the new system:

mkdir etc
cd etc
vi fstab

proc /proc   proc   defaults 0 0
/dev/md0 /boot   ext4   defaults 0 2
/dev/vg0/root /              ext4   defaults 0 1
/dev/vg0/swap          none      swap  defaults,pri=1 0 0

3 Installing The New System

Now we can install Debian testing to /mnt as follows:

debootstrap –arch amd64 testing /mnt ftp://ftp.de.debian.org/debian/

(For other Debian versions and Ubuntu, you have to modify this command a bit.)

Mount some needed directories:

mount -t proc none /mnt/proc
mount -o bind /dev /mnt/dev
mount -o bind /sys /mnt/sys

Chroot to /mnt:

chroot /mnt /bin/bash

Set a root password:

passwd

Create /etc/network/interfaces with the network settings you gathered in chapter 1:

vi /etc/network/interfaces

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
     address <ip_address>
     netmask <netmask>
     broadcast <broadcast>
     gateway <gateway>
iface eth0 inet6 static
  address <ipv6_address>
  netmask 64
  up ip -6 route add <ipv6_gateway> dev eth0
  down ip -6 route del <ipv6_gateway> dev eth0
  up ip -6 route add default via <ipv6_gateway> dev eth0
  down ip -6 route del default via <ipv6_gateway> dev eth0

If you like, you can also modify the files /etc/hostname, /etc/hosts, and /etc/resolv.conf to your likings (for example, set your desired hostname in /etc/hostname and specify valid nameservers, e.g. 8.8.8.8 and 8.8.4.4, in /etc/resolv.conf).

Next update the system…

apt-get update

apt-get upgrade

… and install a few required packages:

apt-get install mdadm openssh-server lvm2 locales ntp vim-nox

Configure your locale settings and your time zone:

dpkg-reconfigure locales tzdata

Install a kernel:

apt-get install linux-image-amd64

If you get the following warnings…

update-initramfs: Generating /boot/initrd.img-3.2.0-4-amd64
df: Warning: cannot read table of mounted file systems: No such file or directory
W: Possible missing firmware /lib/firmware/rtl_nic/rtl8168f-2.fw for module r8169
W: Possible missing firmware /lib/firmware/rtl_nic/rtl8168f-1.fw for module r8169
W: Possible missing firmware /lib/firmware/rtl_nic/rtl8105e-1.fw for module r8169
W: Possible missing firmware /lib/firmware/rtl_nic/rtl8168e-3.fw for module r8169
W: Possible missing firmware /lib/firmware/rtl_nic/rtl8168e-2.fw for module r8169
W: Possible missing firmware /lib/firmware/rtl_nic/rtl8168e-1.fw for module r8169
W: Possible missing firmware /lib/firmware/rtl_nic/rtl8168d-2.fw for module r8169
W: Possible missing firmware /lib/firmware/rtl_nic/rtl8168d-1.fw for module r8169
root@grml:/#

… add the contrib and non-free repositories to /etc/apt/sources.list

vi /etc/apt/sources.list

deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian testing main contrib non-free

apt-get update

… and install the firmware-realtek package:

apt-get install firmware-realtek

Next install GRUB2:

apt-get install grub2

When you are asked GRUB install devices:, select /dev/sda and /dev/sdb.

Install the bootloader on both hard drives and update the initramfs:

grub-install –no-floppy /dev/sda
grub-install –no-floppy /dev/sdb
update-grub /dev/md0
update-initramfs -u

Now you can leave the chroot…

exit

… and finally reboot the system (before you do this, make sure you disable the rescue system in your server provider’s control panel so that the server can boot into the Debian system you’ve just installed):

reboot

If all goes well, you should be able to log into your new Debian system after a few moments.

If you missed to set the correct hostname during installation, you can make up leeway as follows:

echo server1.example.com > /etc/hostname
/etc/init.d/hostname.sh start

 

  • Grml Live Linux: http://grml.org/
  • Debian: http://www.debian.org/

 

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