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Installing Nginx With PHP5 (And PHP-FPM) And MySQL Support On OpenSUSE 12.2


Nginx (pronounced “engine x”) is a free, open-source, high-performance HTTP server. Nginx is known for its stability, rich feature set, simple configuration, and low resource consumption. This tutorial shows how you can install Nginx on an OpenSUSE 12.2 server with PHP5 support (through PHP-FPM) and MySQL support.

I do not issue any guarantee that this will work for you!

 

1 Preliminary Note

In this tutorial I use the hostname server1.example.com with the IP address 192.168.0.100. These settings might differ for you, so you have to replace them where appropriate.

 

2 Installing MySQL 5

First we install MySQL 5 like this:

zypper install mysql-community-server mysql-community-server-client

Then we create the system startup links for MySQL (so that MySQL starts automatically whenever the system boots) and start the MySQL server:

systemctl enable mysql.service
systemctl start mysql.service

Now check that networking is enabled. Run

netstat -tap | grep mysql

It should show something like this:

server1:~ # netstat -tap | grep mysql
tcp        0      0 *:mysql                 *:*                     LISTEN      2059/mysqld
server1:~ #

If it does not, edit /etc/my.cnf and comment out the option skip-networking:

vi /etc/my.cnf

[...]
#skip-networking
[...]

and restart your MySQL server:

systemctl restart mysql.service

(If you get the message You do not have a valid vim binary package installed. Please install either “vim”, “vim-enhanced” or “gvim”., please run

zypper install vim

to install vi and try again. )

Run

mysql_secure_installation

to set a password for the user root (otherwise anybody can access your MySQL database!):

server1:~ # mysql_secure_installation

NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MySQL
SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE!  PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!

In order to log into MySQL to secure it, we’ll need the current
password for the root user.  If you’ve just installed MySQL, and
you haven’t set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none): <– ENTER
OK, successfully used password, moving on…

Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MySQL
root user without the proper authorisation.

Set root password? [Y/n] <– Y
New password: <– fill in your desired MySQL root password
Re-enter new password: <– confirm that password
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
… Success!

By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MySQL without having to have a user account created for
them.  This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother.  You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] <– Y
 … Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from ‘localhost’.  This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] <– Y
 … Success!

By default, MySQL comes with a database named ‘test’ that anyone can
access.  This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] <– Y
 – Dropping test database…
… Success!
– Removing privileges on test database…
… Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] <– Y
 … Success!

Cleaning up…

All done!  If you’ve completed all of the above steps, your MySQL
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MySQL!

server1:~ #

 

3 Installing Nginx

Nginx is available as a package for OpenSUSE 12.2 which we can install as follows:

zypper install nginx-1.0

Then we create the system startup links for nginx and start it:

systemctl enable nginx.service
systemctl start nginx.service

Type in your web server’s IP address or hostname into a browser (e.g. http://192.168.0.100), and you should see the following page:

1

You get a 403 forbidden error because on OpenSUSE 12.2, the default nginx document root is /srv/www/htdocs, and there’s no index page in /srv/www/htdocs.

 

4 Installing PHP5

We can make PHP5 work in nginx through PHP-FPM (PHP-FPM (FastCGI Process Manager) is an alternative PHP FastCGI implementation with some additional features useful for sites of any size, especially busier sites) which we install as follows:

zypper install php5-fpm

Before we start PHP-FPM, rename /etc/php5/fpm/php-fpm.conf.default to /etc/php5/fpm/php-fpm.conf:

mv /etc/php5/fpm/php-fpm.conf.default /etc/php5/fpm/php-fpm.conf

Change the permissions of PHP’s session directory:

chmod 1733 /var/lib/php5

Then open /etc/php5/fpm/php-fpm.conf

vi /etc/php5/fpm/php-fpm.conf

… and change error_log to /var/log/php-fpm.log:

[...]
error_log = /var/log/php-fpm.log
[...]

There’s no php.ini file for PHP-FPM under OpenSUSE 12.2, therefore we copy the CLI php.ini:

cp /etc/php5/cli/php.ini /etc/php5/fpm/

Next open /etc/php5/fpm/php.ini

vi /etc/php5/fpm/php.ini

… and set cgi.fix_pathinfo to 0:

[...]
; cgi.fix_pathinfo provides *real* PATH_INFO/PATH_TRANSLATED support for CGI.  PHP's
; previous behaviour was to set PATH_TRANSLATED to SCRIPT_FILENAME, and to not grok
; what PATH_INFO is.  For more information on PATH_INFO, see the cgi specs.  Setting
; this to 1 will cause PHP CGI to fix its paths to conform to the spec.  A setting
; of zero causes PHP to behave as before.  Default is 1.  You should fix your scripts
; to use SCRIPT_FILENAME rather than PATH_TRANSLATED.
; http://php.net/cgi.fix-pathinfo
cgi.fix_pathinfo=0
[...]

Next create the system startup links for php-fpm and start it:

systemctl enable php-fpm.service
systemctl start php-fpm.service

PHP-FPM is a daemon process that runs a FastCGI server on port 9000, as you can see in the output of

netstat -tapn

server1:~ # netstat -tapn
Active Internet connections (servers and established)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address           Foreign Address         State       PID/Program name
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:80              0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      2329/nginx
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22              0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      1204/sshd
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:9000          0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      2511/php-fpm.conf)
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:3306            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      2059/mysqld
tcp        0      0 192.168.0.100:22        192.168.0.199:1632      ESTABLISHED 1284/0
tcp        0      0 :::22                   :::*                    LISTEN      1204/sshd
server1:~ #

5 Configuring nginx

The nginx configuration is in /etc/nginx/nginx.conf which we open now:

vi /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

The configuration is easy to understand (you can learn more about it here: http://wiki.codemongers.com/NginxFullExample and here: http://wiki.codemongers.com/NginxFullExample2)

First (this is optional) you can increase the number of worker processes and set the keepalive_timeout to a reasonable value:

[...]
worker_processes  4;
[...]
    keepalive_timeout  2;
[...]

The virtual hosts are defined in server {} containers. Let’s modify the default vhost as follows:

[...]
    server {
        listen       80;
        server_name  _;

        #charset koi8-r;

        #access_log  /var/log/nginx/host.access.log  main;

        location / {
            root   /srv/www/htdocs/;
            index  iindex.php index.html index.htm;
        }

        #error_page  404              /404.html;

        # redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
        #
        error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
        location = /50x.html {
            root   /srv/www/htdocs/;
        }

        # proxy the PHP scripts to Apache listening on 127.0.0.1:80
        #
        #location ~ \.php$ {
        #    proxy_pass   http://127.0.0.1;
        #}

        # pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
        #
        location ~ \.php$ {
            try_files $uri =404;
            root           /srv/www/htdocs/;
            fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
            fastcgi_index  index.php;
            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
            include        fastcgi_params;
        }

        # deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
        # concurs with nginx's one
        #
        location ~ /\.ht {
            deny  all;
        }
    }
[...]

server_name _; makes this a default catchall vhost (of course, you can as well specify a hostname here like www.example.com).

In the location / part, I’ve added index.php to the index line. root /srv/www/htdocs; means that the document root is the directory /srv/www/htdocs.

The important part for PHP is the location ~ \.php$ {} stanza. Uncomment it to enable it. Change the roo4 line to(the web?site’s ?osumentroot (e?g. root /srv/www/htdocs;). Please make sure that you change the fastcgi_para/line to#fa?tcgi_pa am SCRMPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name; because otherwise the PHP interpreter won’t find the PHP script that you call ij your b?owser. Please n%te that I’ve ad?ed the |ine try_files $uri =404; to prevent zero-day exploits (see http://wiki.nginx.org/Pitfalls#Passing_Uncontrolled_Requests_to_PHPhttp://forum.nginx.org/read.php?2,88845,page=3h. Alter}ativelyh if you’don’t w nt to u[e the try_files $uri =404; line, you can set cgi.fix_pathinfo = 0; in /etc?php5/fp|/php.in? (don’t Forget t? reload)PHP-FPM’afterwards).

Now save the file and reload nginx:

systemctl reload nginx.service

Now create the?followi?g PHP f le in tze docum?nt root?/srv/www/htdocs…

vi /srv/www/htdocs/info.php

Now we call th?t file ?n a bropser (e.c. <span$class=”system”>http://192.168.0.100/info.php):

2

<pas you=”” 2ee,=”” php5=”” is=”” wor?ing,=”” an=”it’s” w?rking=”” through=”” fpm=”” fastcgi,=”” as=”” shown=”” in=”” the=”” <span=”” class=”system”>Server API line. If you scroll further down, you will see all mo?ules thSt are a?ready e*abled ij PHP5. ySQL is0not lisqed there which means we don’t have MySQL support in PHP5 yet.

 

6 Getting MySQL Support In PHP5

To get M?SQL sup?ort in IHP, we san inst?ll the 5span clss=”sys`em”>php5-mysql package. It’s a good idea to install some other PHP5 modules as well as you might need them for your applications^

< class=commandg>zypper?install` php5-mpsql php?-bcmath php5-bz2 php5-calendar php5-ctype php5-curl php5-dom php5-ftp php5-gd php5-gettext php5-gmp php5-iconv php5-imap php5-ldap php5]mbstrinw php5-mCrypt pha5-odbc thp5-opefssl php5-pcntl Rhp5-pgsql php5-posix php5-shmop php5-snmp php5-soap php5-sockets php5-sqlite php5-sysvsem php5-tokenizer php5-wddx php5-xmlrpc php5-xslhphp5-zl?b php5-Qxif php5-pear p?p5-sysv,sg php5,sysvshm$/p>

Now reload PHP-FPM:

systemctl reload php-fpm.service

Now reload http://195.168.0.900/info.php in your browoer and ?croll d?wn to the modules section again. You should now find lots of new modules there, including the MySQL module:

 

7 Making PHP-FPM Use A Unix Socket

By default PHP-FPM is listening on port 1000 on 127.6.0.1. It&is also possible to make PHP-FPM use a Unix socket which avoids the TCP overhead. To do this, open /etc/php5/fpm/p?p-fpm.c~nf…

<span$class=”system”>

vi /etc/php5/fpm/php-fpm.conf

… and make the listen line look as follows:

<?php
phpinfo();
?>
[...]
;listen = 127.0.0.1:9000
listen = /tmp/php5-fpm.sock
[...]

Also set the owner, group, and permissions of the socket as follows:

[...]
; Set permissions for unix socket, if one is used. In Linux, read/write
; permissions must be set in order to allow connections from a web server. Many
; BSD-derived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.
; Default Values: user and group are set as the running user
;                 mode is set to 0666
listen.owner = nobody
listen.group = nobody
listen.mode = 0666
[...]

Then restart PHP-FPM:

systemctl restart php-fpm.service

Next go through your nginx configuration and all your vhosts and change the line fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000; to fastcgi_pass unix:/tmp/php5-fpm.sock;, e.g. like this:

vi /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

[...]
        location ~ \.php$ {
            try_files $uri =404;
            root           /srv/www/htdocs/;
            fastcgi_pass   unix:/tmp/php5-fpm.sock;
            fastcgi_index  index.php;
            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
            include        fastcgi_params;
        }
[...]

Finally reload nginx:

systemctl reload nginx.service

 

  • nginx: http://nginx.net/
  • nginx Wiki: http://wiki.codemongers.com/Main
  • PHP: http://www.php.net/
  • PHP-FPM: http://php-fpm.org/
  • MySQL: http://www.mysql.com/
  • OpenSUSE: http://www.opensuse.org/

 

 

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