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Run Your Own Webradio Station With Icecast2 And Ices2


This tutorial describes how to set up an audio streaming server with Icecast2. In order that Icecast2 can stream audio to listeners we install Ices2. Ices2 is a program that sends audio data to an Icecast2 server to broadcast to clients. Ices2 can either read audio data from disk (Ogg Vorbis files), or sample live audio from a sound card and encode it on the fly. In this article we will let Ices2 read .ogg files from the local hard disk.

I do not issue any guarantee that this will work for you!

 

1 Preliminary Note

As mentioned in the introduction, Ices2 can read from multiple sources and send audio data to the Icecast2 server. In this article we will let Ices2 read .ogg files from the local hard disk (playlist mode), and we will install Icecast2 and Ices2 on the same system.

Ices2 supports Ogg Vorbis files only, so if you have .mp3 files that you want to stream you should convert them to .ogg. (In earlier versions Ices supported MP3 files as well, but this support was given up because MP3 is a patented and proprietary encoding technology whereas Ogg Vorbis is an open and patent-free audio encoding technology.)

In this example my system uses Debian Etch. The procedure should be identical for Ubuntu systems. My system has the IP address 192.168.0.100.

 

2 Install And Configure Icecast2

To install Icecast2 we simply run

apt-get install icecast2

Afterwards we must edit /etc/icecast2/icecast.xml. Most default values should work fine for now, but you should change the passwords in the <authentication>…</authentication> section. The source-password is the password that Ices2 will later on use to connect to Icecast2; the admin-password is the password that the admin will use in Icecast2’s web interface; we won’t use the relay-password, but anyway you should change it.

vi /etc/icecast2/icecast.xml

[...]
    <authentication>
        <!-- Sources log in with username 'source' -->
        <source-password>password1</source-password>
        <!-- Relays log in username 'relay' -->
        <relay-password>password2</relay-password>

        <!-- Admin logs in with the username given below -->
        <admin-user>admin</admin-user>
        <admin-password>password3</admin-password>
    </authentication>
[...]

Afterwards edit /etc/default/icecast2 and set ENABLE to true:

vi /etc/default/icecast2

# Defaults for icecast2 initscript
# sourced by /etc/init.d/icecast2
# installed at /etc/default/icecast2 by the maintainer scripts

#
# This is a POSIX shell fragment
#

# Full path to the server configuration file
CONFIGFILE="/etc/icecast2/icecast.xml"

# Name or ID of the user and group the daemon should run under
USERID=icecast2
GROUPID=icecast

# Edit /etc/icecast2/icecast.xml and change at least the passwords.
# Change this to true when done to enable the init.d script
ENABLE=true

That’s it already, we can now start the Icecast2 server:

/etc/init.d/icecast2 start

You can now direct your browser to http://192.168.0.100:8000/ (replace 192.168.0.100 with your own IP address or FQDN) and browse through the web interface:

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2

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3 Install And Configure Ices2

To install Ices2, we run

apt-get install ices2

Next we create the directories /var/log/ices (for the Ices2 log files), /etc/ices2 (where we store our Ices2 configuration file), and /etc/ices2/music (where we store our .ogg files):

mkdir /var/log/ices
mkdir /etc/ices2
mkdir /etc/ices2/music

The Ices2 package comes with three sample configuration files, /usr/share/doc/ices2/examples/ices-alsa.xml, /usr/share/doc/ices2/examples/ices-oss.xml, and /usr/share/doc/ices2/examples/ices-playlist.xml. We use the latter one because we will create a playlist of local .ogg files that we want to stream to listeners. Therefore we copy that file to /etc/ices2:

cp /usr/share/doc/ices2/examples/ices-playlist.xml /etc/ices2

Next we edit /etc/ices2/ices-playlist.xml. Most default values should work, but we change <background>0</background> to <background>1</background> because we want Ices2 to run in the background (otherwise it would wait on the shell until you terminate it), we also change the data in the <metadata>…</metadata> section, we set the full path to our playlist file in the <input>…</input> section, and we set the correct source password for our Icecast2 server in the <instance>…</instance> section (you can also set the bitrate of your audio stream in that section):

vi /etc/ices2/ices-playlist.xml

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<ices>
    <!-- run in background -->
    <background>1</background>
    <!-- where logs, etc go. -->
    <logpath>/var/log/ices</logpath>
    <logfile>ices.log</logfile>
    <!-- 1=error,2=warn,3=info,4=debug -->
    <loglevel>4</loglevel>
    <!-- set this to 1 to log to the console instead of to the file above -->
    <consolelog>0</consolelog>

    <!-- optional filename to write process id to -->
    <!-- <pidfile>/home/ices/ices.pid</pidfile> -->

    <stream>
        <!-- metadata used for stream listing (not currently used) -->
        <metadata>
            <name>Example stream name</name>
            <genre>Example genre</genre>
            <description>A short description of your stream</description>
        </metadata>

        <!-- input module

            The module used here is the playlist module - it has
            'submodules' for different types of playlist. There are
            two currently implemented, 'basic', which is a simple
            file-based playlist, and 'script' which invokes a command
            to returns a filename to start playing. -->

        <input>
            <module>playlist</module>
            <param name="type">basic</param>
            <param name="file">/etc/ices2/playlist.txt</param>
            <!-- random play -->
            <param name="random">0</param>
            <!-- if the playlist get updated that start at the beginning -->
            <param name="restart-after-reread">0</param>
            <!-- if set to 1 , plays once through, then exits. -->
            <param name="once">0</param>
        </input>

                <!-- Stream instance
            You may have one or more instances here. This allows you to
            send the same input data to one or more servers (or to different
            mountpoints on the same server). Each of them can have different
            parameters. This is primarily useful for a) relaying to multiple
            independent servers, and b) encoding/reencoding to multiple
            bitrates.
            If one instance fails (for example, the associated server goes
            down, etc), the others will continue to function correctly.
            This example defines two instances as two mountpoints on the
            same server.  -->
        <instance>
            <!-- Server details:
                You define hostname and port for the server here, along with
                the source password and mountpoint.  -->
            <hostname>localhost</hostname>
            <port>8000</port>
            <password>password1</password>
            <mount>/example1.ogg</mount>

            <!-- Reconnect parameters:
                When something goes wrong (e.g. the server crashes, or the
                network drops) and ices disconnects from the server, these
                control how often it tries to reconnect, and how many times
                it tries to reconnect. Delay is in seconds.
                If you set reconnectattempts to -1, it will continue
                indefinately. Suggest setting reconnectdelay to a large value
                if you do this.
            -->
            <reconnectdelay>2</reconnectdelay>
            <reconnectattempts>5</reconnectattempts>

            <!-- maxqueuelength:
                This describes how long the internal data queues may be. This
                basically lets you control how much data gets buffered before
                ices decides it can't send to the server fast enough, and
                either shuts down or flushes the queue (dropping the data)
                and continues.
                For advanced users only.
            -->
            <maxqueuelength>80</maxqueuelength>

            <!-- Live encoding/reencoding:
                Currrently, the parameters given here for encoding MUST
                match the input data for channels and sample rate. That
                restriction will be relaxed in the future.
            -->
            <encode>
                <nominal-bitrate>64000</nominal-bitrate> <!-- bps. e.g. 64000 for 64 kbps -->
                <samplerate>44100</samplerate>
                <channels>2</channels>
            </encode>
        </instance>

        </stream>
</ices>

Afterwards put your .ogg files into the /etc/ices2/music directory (but take care about the licenses of the audio files you want to stream – you might have to pay money to get the right to stream them), e.g. with a tool like WinSCP.

Afterwards create the file /etc/ices2/playlist.txt and put the full paths to your .ogg files into it, one line per .ogg file:

vi /etc/ices2/playlist.txt

[...]
/etc/ices2/music/1vs0_JuniorGroove.ogg
/etc/ices2/music/1vs0_TheWavechangerSuperhero.ogg
[...]

Then start Ices2:

ices2 /etc/ices2/ices-playlist.xml

In the Icecast2 web interface you should now find a link to your new audio stream (Click to Listen -> http://192.168.0.100:8000/example1.ogg.m3u, but http://192.168.0.100:8000/example1.ogg works as well):

4

Open the link with your favourite audio player, for example WinAMP:

5

If you want to stop Ices2, just run

kill -9 `pidof ices2`
4 Modify The Icecast2 Init Script

Ices2 doesn’t come with an init script which means we must start/stop it independently from Icecast2. Icecast2 comes with an init script which means it starts automatically at boot time, but Ices2 does not which can become annoying. Therefore we modify the Icecast2 init script and add sections for Ices2 to it.

The original Icecast2 init script looks like this:

vi /etc/init.d/icecast2

#! /bin/sh
#
# icecast2
#
# Written by Miquel van Smoorenburg <miquels@cistron.nl>.
# Modified for Debian
# by Ian Murdock <imurdock@gnu.ai.mit.edu>.
#
# Further modified by Keegan Quinn <ice@thebasement.org>
# for use with Icecast 2
#

PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
DAEMON=/usr/bin/icecast2
NAME=icecast2
DESC=icecast2

test -x $DAEMON || exit 0

# Defaults
CONFIGFILE=”/etc/icecast2/icecast.xml”
CONFIGDEFAULTFILE=”/etc/default/icecast2″
USERID=icecast2
GROUPID=icecast
ENABLE=”false”

# Reads config file (will override defaults above)
[ -r “$CONFIGDEFAULTFILE” ] && . $CONFIGDEFAULTFILE

if [ “$ENABLE” != “true” ]; then
echo “$NAME daemon disabled – read $CONFIGDEFAULTFILE.”
exit 0
fi

set -e

case “$1” in
start)
echo -n “Starting $DESC: ”
start-stop-daemon –start –quiet –chuid $USERID:$GROUPID \
–exec $DAEMON — -b -c $CONFIGFILE
echo “$NAME.”
;;
stop)
echo -n “Stopping $DESC: ”
start-stop-daemon –stop –oknodo –quiet –exec $DAEMON
echo “$NAME.”
;;
reload|force-reload)
echo “Reloading $DESC configuration files.”
start-stop-daemon –stop –signal 1 –quiet –exec $DAEMON
;;
restart)
echo -n “Restarting $DESC: ”
start-stop-daemon –stop –oknodo –quiet –exec $DAEMON
sleep 1
start-stop-daemon –start –quiet –chuid $USERID:$GROUPID \
–exec $DAEMON — -b -c $CONFIGFILE
echo “$NAME.”
;;
*)
echo “Usage: $0 {start|stop|restart|reload|force-reload}” >&2
exit 1
;;
esac

exit 0

We modify it so that it looks like this (I’ve added or modified the parts in red):

vi /etc/init.d/icecast2

#! /bin/sh
#
# icecast2
#
#                Written by Miquel van Smoorenburg <miquels@cistron.nl>.
#                Modified for Debian
#                by Ian Murdock <imurdock@gnu.ai.mit.edu>.
#
#                Further modified by Keegan Quinn <ice@thebasement.org>
#                for use with Icecast 2
#

PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
DAEMON=/usr/bin/icecast2
NAME=icecast2
DESC=icecast2
ICES=/usr/bin/ices2
ICES_CONFIGFILE=/etc/ices2/ices-playlist.xml

test -x $DAEMON || exit 0

# Defaults
CONFIGFILE="/etc/icecast2/icecast.xml"
CONFIGDEFAULTFILE="/etc/default/icecast2"
USERID=icecast2
GROUPID=icecast
ENABLE="false"

# Reads config file (will override defaults above)
[ -r "$CONFIGDEFAULTFILE" ] && . $CONFIGDEFAULTFILE

if [ "$ENABLE" != "true" ]; then
        echo "$NAME daemon disabled - read $CONFIGDEFAULTFILE."
        exit 0
fi

set -e

case "$1" in
  start)
        echo -n "Starting $DESC: "
        start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --chuid $USERID:$GROUPID \
                --exec $DAEMON -- -b -c $CONFIGFILE
        sleep 3
        start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --exec $ICES $ICES_CONFIGFILE
        echo "$NAME."
        ;;
  stop)
        echo -n "Stopping $DESC: "
        start-stop-daemon --stop --oknodo --quiet --exec $ICES

        start-stop-daemon --stop --oknodo --quiet --exec $DAEMON
        echo "$NAME."
        ;;
  reload|force-reload)
        echo "Reloading $DESC configuration files."
        start-stop-daemon --stop --oknodo --quiet --exec $ICES
        start-stop-daemon --stop --signal 1 --quiet --exec $DAEMON
        sleep 3
        start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --exec $ICES $ICES_CONFIGFILE
        ;;
  restart)
        echo -n "Restarting $DESC: "
        start-stop-daemon --stop --oknodo --quiet --exec $ICES

        start-stop-daemon --stop --oknodo --quiet --exec $DAEMON
        sleep 3
        start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --chuid $USERID:$GROUPID \
                --exec $DAEMON -- -b -c $CONFIGFILE
        sleep 3
        start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --exec $ICES $ICES_CONFIGFILE
        echo "$NAME."
        ;;
  *)
        echo "Usage: $0 {start|stop|restart|reload|force-reload}" >&2
        exit 1
        ;;
esac

exit 0

Now Ices2 will start/stop/restart whenever Icecast2 does, and it will also start at boot time.

 

  • Icecast/Ices: http://www.icecast.org
  • Debian: http://www.debian.org
  • Ubuntu: http://www.ubuntu.com

 

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