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The Perfect Server – Debian 8.6 (nginx, BIND, Dovecot, ISPConfig 3.1)


This tutorial shows how to prepare a Debian Jessie server (with nginx, BIND, Dovecot) for the installation of ISPConfig 3.1, and how to install ISPConfig 3.1. ISPConfig 3 is a webhosting control panel that allows you to configure the following services through a web browser: Apache or nginx web server, Postfix mail server, Courier or Dovecot IMAP/POP3 server, MySQL, BIND or MyDNS nameserver, PureFTPd, SpamAssassin, ClamAV, and many more. This setup covers nginx (instead of Apache), BIND as DNS Server, and Dovecot as IMAP / POP3 server.

1 Preliminary Note

In this tutorial, I use the hostname server1.example.com with the IP address 192.168.1.100 and the gateway 192.168.1.1. These settings might differ for you, so you have to replace them where appropriate. Before proceeding further you need to have a minimal installation of Debian 8. This might be a Debian minimal image from your hosting provider or you use the Minimal Debian Server tutorial to setup the base system.

2 Install the SSH Server

If you did not install the OpenSSH server during the system installation, you can do it now:

apt-get -y install ssh openssh-server

From now on you can use an SSH client such as PuTTY and connect from your workstation to your Debian 8 server and follow the remaining steps from this tutorial.

3 Install a shell text editor (Optional)

I’ll use nano text editor in this tutorial. Some users prefer the classic vi editor, therefore I will install both editors here. The default vi program has some strange behavior on Debian and Ubuntu; to fix this, we install vim-nox:

apt-get -y install nano vim-nox

(You don’t have to do this if you use a different text editor such as joe.)

4 Configure the Hostname

The hostname of your server should be a subdomain like “server1.example.com”. Do not use a domain name without subdomain part like “example.com” as hostname as this will cause problems later with your mail setup. First, you should check the hostname in /etc/hosts and change it when necessary. The line should be: “IP Address – space – full hostname incl. domain – space – subdomain part”. Edit /etc/hosts. Make it look like this:

nano /etc/hosts

127.0.0.1       localhost.localdomain   localhost
192.168.1.100   server1.example.com     server1

# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1     localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters

Then edit the /etc/hostname file:

nano /etc/hostname

It shall contain only the subdomain part, in our case:

server1

Finally, reboot the server to apply the change:

reboot

Login again and check if the hostname is correct now with these commands:

hostname
hostname -f

The output shall be like this:

root@server1:/tmp# hostname
server1
root@server1:/tmp# hostname -f
server1.example.com

5 Update Your Debian Installation

First make sure that your /etc/apt/sources.list contains the wheezy-updates repository (this makes sure you always get the newest updates for the ClamAV virus scanner – this project publishes releases very often, and sometimes old versions stop working), and that the contrib and non-free repositories are enabled (some packages such as libapache2-mod-fastcgi are not in the main repository).

nano /etc/apt/sources.list

deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ jessie main contrib non-free
deb-src http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ jessie main contrib non-free

deb http://security.debian.org/ jessie/updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ jessie/updates main contrib non-free

# Debian backports - Required for Letsencrypt
deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie-backports main

IMPORTANT: Add the Debian Backports repository as shown above.

Run

apt-get update

to update the apt package database and

apt-get upgrade

to install the latest updates (if there are any).

6 Change the Default Shell

/bin/sh is a symlink to /bin/dash, however we need /bin/bash, not /bin/dash. Therefore we do this:

dpkg-reconfigure dash

Use dash as the default system shell (/bin/sh)? <– No

If you don’t do this, the ISPConfig installation will fail.

7 Synchronize the System Clock

It is a good idea to synchronize the system clock with an NTP (network time protocol) server over the Internet. Simply run

apt-get install ntp ntpdate

and your system time will always be in sync.

8 Install Postfix, Dovecot, MySQL, phpMyAdmin, rkhunter, binutils

We can install Postfix, Dovecot, MySQL, rkhunter, and Binutils with a single command:

apt-get install postfix postfix-mysql postfix-doc mariadb-client mariadb-server openssl getmail4 rkhunter binutils dovecot-imapd dovecot-pop3d dovecot-mysql dovecot-sieve dovecot-lmtpd sudo

You will be asked the following questions:

General type of mail configuration: <– Internet Site
System mail name: <– server1.example.com
New password for the MariaDB “root” user: <– yourrootsqlpassword
Repeat password for the MariaDB “root” user: <– yourrootsqlpassword

To secure the MariaDB / MySQL installation and to disable the test database, run this command:

mysql_secure_installation

We don’t have to change the MySQL root password as we just set a new one during installation. Answer the questions as follows:

Change the root password? [Y/n] <– n
Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] <– y
Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] <– y
Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] <– y
Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] <– y

Next open the TLS/SSL and submission ports in Postfix:

nano /etc/postfix/master.cf

Uncomment the submission and smtps sections as follows (leave -o milter_macro_daemon_name=ORIGINATING as we don’t need it):

[...]
submission inet n - - - - smtpd
 -o syslog_name=postfix/submission
 -o smtpd_tls_security_level=encrypt
 -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes
 -o smtpd_client_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject
# -o smtpd_reject_unlisted_recipient=no
# -o smtpd_client_restrictions=$mua_client_restrictions
# -o smtpd_helo_restrictions=$mua_helo_restrictions
# -o smtpd_sender_restrictions=$mua_sender_restrictions
# -o smtpd_recipient_restrictions=
# -o smtpd_relay_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject
# -o milter_macro_daemon_name=ORIGINATING
smtps inet n - - - - smtpd
 -o syslog_name=postfix/smtps
 -o smtpd_tls_wrappermode=yes
 -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes
 -o smtpd_client_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject
# -o smtpd_reject_unlisted_recipient=no
# -o smtpd_client_restrictions=$mua_client_restrictions
# -o smtpd_helo_restrictions=$mua_helo_restrictions
# -o smtpd_sender_restrictions=$mua_sender_restrictions
# -o smtpd_recipient_restrictions=
# -o smtpd_relay_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject
# -o milter_macro_daemon_name=ORIGINATING
[...]

Restart Postfix afterwards:

service postfix restart

We want MySQL to listen on all interfaces, not just localhost, therefore we edit /etc/mysql/my.cnf and comment out the line bind-address = 127.0.0.1:

nano /etc/mysql/my.cnf

[...]
# Instead of skip-networking the default is now to listen only on
# localhost which is more compatible and is not less secure.
#bind-address           = 127.0.0.1
[...]

Then we restart MySQL:

service mysql restart

Now check that networking is enabled. Run

netstat -tap | grep mysql

The output should look like this:

root@server1:~# netstat -tap | grep mysql
tcp        0      0 *:mysql                 *:*                     LISTEN      218123/mysqld
root@server1:~#

9 Install Amavisd-new, SpamAssassin, and Clamav

To install amavisd-new, SpamAssassin, and ClamAV, we run:

apt-get install amavisd-new spamassassin clamav clamav-daemon zoo unzip bzip2 arj nomarch lzop cabextract apt-listchanges libnet-ldap-perl libauthen-sasl-perl clamav-docs daemon libio-string-perl libio-socket-ssl-perl libnet-ident-perl zip libnet-dns-perl postgrey

The ISPConfig 3 setup uses amavisd which loads the SpamAssassin filter library internally, so we can stop SpamAssassin to free up some RAM:

service spamassassin stop
systemctl disable spamassassin

9.1 Install Metronome XMPP Server (optional)

This step installs the Metronome XMPP Server which provides a chat server that is compatible with the XMPP protocol. This step is optional, if you do not need a chat server, then you can skip this step. No other ISPConfig functions depend on this software.

Add the Prosody package repository in Debian.

echo “deb http://packages.prosody.im/debian jessie main” > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/metronome.list
wget http://prosody.im/files/prosody-debian-packages.key -O – | sudo apt-key add –

Update the package list:

apt-get update

Install the programs that are required for the build process

apt-get install build-essential

and install the packages with apt.

apt-get install git lua5.1 liblua5.1-0-dev lua-filesystem libidn11-dev libssl-dev lua-zlib lua-expat lua-event lua-bitop lua-socket lua-sec luarocks luarocks

luarocks install lpc

Add a shell user for Metronome.

adduser –no-create-home –disabled-login –gecos ‘Metronome’ metronome

Download Metronome to the /opt directory and compile it.

cd /opt; git clone https://github.com/maranda/metronome.git metronome
cd ./metronome; ./configure –ostype=debian –prefix=/usr
make
make install

Metronome has now be installed to /opt/metronome.

10 Install Nginx, PHP (PHP-FPM), and Fcgiwrap

Nginx is available as a package for Debian which we can install as follows:

apt-get install nginx

If Apache2 is already installed on the system, stop it now…

service apache2 stop

The message “Failed to stop apache2.service: Unit apache2.service not loaded.” is fine and does not indicate an error.

… and remove Apache’s system startup links:

systemctl disable apache2

Start nginx afterwards:

service nginx start

(If both Apache2 and nginx are installed, the ISPConfig 3 installer will ask you which one you want to use – answer nginx in this case. If only one of these both is installed, ISPConfig will do the necessary configuration automatically.)

We can make PHP5 work in nginx through PHP-FPM (PHP-FPM (FastCGI Process Manager) is an alternative PHP FastCGI implementation with some additional features useful for sites of any size, especially busier sites) which we install as follows:

apt-get install php5-fpm

PHP-FPM is a daemon process (with the init script /etc/init.d/php5-fpm) that runs a FastCGI server on the socket /var/run/php5-fpm.sock.

To get MySQL support in PHP, we can install the php5-mysql package. It’s a good idea to install some other PHP5 modules as well as you might need them for your applications. You can search for available PHP5 modules like this:

apt-cache search php5

Pick the ones you need and install them like this:

apt-get install php5-mysql php5-curl php5-gd php5-intl php-pear php5-imagick php5-imap php5-mcrypt php5-memcache php5-memcached  php5-pspell php5-recode php5-sqlite php5-tidy php5-xmlrpc php5-xsl memcached

APC is a free and open PHP opcode cacher for caching and optimizing PHP intermediate code. It’s similar to other PHP opcode cachers, such as eAccelerator and XCache. It is strongly recommended to have one of these installed to speed up your PHP page.

APC can be installed as follows:

apt-get install php-apc

Next open /etc/php5/fpm/php.ini

nano /etc/php5/fpm/php.ini

… and set cgi.fix_pathinfo=0 and your timezone:

[...]
cgi.fix_pathinfo=0
[...]
date.timezone="Europe/Berlin"
[...]

(You can find all available timezones in the /usr/share/zoneinfo directories and its subdirectories.)

Now reload PHP-FPM:

service php5-fpm reload

To get CGI support in nginx, we install Fcgiwrap.

Fcgiwrap is a CGI wrapper that should work also for complex CGI scripts and can be used for shared hosting environments because it allows each vhost to use its own cgi-bin directory.

Install the fcgiwrap package:

apt-get install fcgiwrap

After the installation, the fcgiwrap daemon should already be started; its socket is /var/run/fcgiwrap.socket. If it is not running, you can use the fservice fcgiwrap script to start it.

That’s it! Now when you create an nginx vhost, ISPConfig will take care of the correct vhost configuration.

10.1 Additional PHP Versions

Starting with ISPConfig 3.0.5, it is possible to have multiple PHP versions on one server (selectable through ISPConfig) which can be run through PHP-FPM incl. PHP 7 and 7.1. To learn how to build additional PHP versions (PHP-FPM) and how to configure ISPConfig, please check this tutorial: How to install PHP 7 (PHP-FPM & FastCGI) for ISPConfig 3 on Debian 8 (Jessie)

10.2 Install phpMyAdmin

Install phpMyAdmin as follows:

apt-get install phpmyadmin

Do not select an option when the installers is asking “Web server to reconfigure automatically:” and press ok.

Configure database for phpmyadmin with dbconfig-common? <– yes
Password of the database’s administrative user: <– Enter the MySQL root password
MySQL application password for phpmyadmin: <– Press Enter

You can now find phpMyAdmin in the /usr/share/phpmyadmin/ directory.

After you have installed ISPConfig 3, you can access phpMyAdmin as follows:

The ISPConfig apps vhost on port 8081 for nginx comes with a phpMyAdmin configuration, so you can use http://server1.example.com:8081/phpmyadmin or http://server1.example.com:8081/phpMyAdmin to access phpMyAdmin.

If you want to use a /phpmyadmin or /phpMyAdmin alias that you can use from your web sites, this is a bit more complicated than for Apache because nginx does not have global aliases (i.e., aliases that can be defined for all vhosts). Therefore you have to define these aliases for each vhost from which you want to access phpMyAdmin.

To do this, paste the following into the nginx Directives field on the Options tab of the web site in ISPConfig:

        location /phpmyadmin {
               root /usr/share/;
               index index.php index.html index.htm;
               location ~ ^/phpmyadmin/(.+\.php)$ {
                       try_files $uri =404;
                       root /usr/share/;
                       fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock;
                       fastcgi_index index.php;
                       fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $request_filename;
                       include /etc/nginx/fastcgi_params;
                       fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_script_name;
                       fastcgi_buffer_size 128k;
                       fastcgi_buffers 256 4k;
                       fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 256k;
                       fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 256k;
                       fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
               }
               location ~* ^/phpmyadmin/(.+\.(jpg|jpeg|gif|css|png|js|ico|html|xml|txt))$ {
                       root /usr/share/;
               }
        }
        location /phpMyAdmin {
               rewrite ^/* /phpmyadmin last;
        }

If you use https instead of http for your vhost, you should add the line fastcgi_param HTTPS on; to your phpMyAdmin configuration like this:

        location /phpmyadmin {
               root /usr/share/;
               index index.php index.html index.htm;
               location ~ ^/phpmyadmin/(.+\.php)$ {
                       try_files $uri =404;
                       root /usr/share/;
                       fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock;
                       fastcgi_param HTTPS on; # <-- add this line
                       fastcgi_index index.php;
                       fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $request_filename;
                       include /etc/nginx/fastcgi_params;
                       fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_script_name;
                       fastcgi_buffer_size 128k;
                       fastcgi_buffers 256 4k;
                       fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 256k;
                       fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 256k;
                       fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
               }
               location ~* ^/phpmyadmin/(.+\.(jpg|jpeg|gif|css|png|js|ico|html|xml|txt))$ {
                       root /usr/share/;
               }
        }
        location /phpMyAdmin {
               rewrite ^/* /phpmyadmin last;
        }

If you use both http and https for your vhost, you can use the $https variable. Go to the nginx Directives field again, and instead of fastcgi_param HTTPS on; you add the line fastcgi_param HTTPS $https; so that you can use phpMyAdmin for both http and https requests:

        location /phpmyadmin {
               root /usr/share/;
               index index.php index.html index.htm;
               location ~ ^/phpmyadmin/(.+\.php)$ {
                       try_files $uri =404;
                       root /usr/share/;
                       fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/php5-fpm.sock;
                       fastcgi_param HTTPS $https; # <-- add this line
                       fastcgi_index index.php;
                       fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $request_filename;
                       include /etc/nginx/fastcgi_params;
                       fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_script_name;
                       fastcgi_buffer_size 128k;
                       fastcgi_buffers 256 4k;
                       fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 256k;
                       fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 256k;
                       fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
               }
               location ~* ^/phpmyadmin/(.+\.(jpg|jpeg|gif|css|png|js|ico|html|xml|txt))$ {
                       root /usr/share/;
               }
        }
        location /phpMyAdmin {
               rewrite ^/* /phpmyadmin last;
        }

10.3 Install HHVM (HipHop Virtual Machine)

In this step, we will install HHVM from its official Debian repository. Add the HHVM repo and import the key.

sudo apt-key adv –recv-keys –keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 0x5a16e7281be7a449
echo deb http://dl.hhvm.com/debian jessie main | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/hhvm.list

Update the package list:

sudo apt-get update

and install HHVM:

sudo apt-get install hhvm

11 Install Let’s Encrypt

ISPConfig 3.1  has support for the free SSL Certificate authority Let’s encrypt. The Let’s Encrypt function allows you to create free SSL certificates for your website from within ISPConfig.

apt-get install python-certbot-apache -t jessie-backports

12 Install Mailman

ISPConfig allows you to manage (create/modify/delete) Mailman mailing lists. If you want to make use of this feature, install Mailman as follows:

apt-get install mailman

Select at least one language, e.g.:

Languages to support: <– en (English)
Missing site list <– Ok

Before we can start Mailman, a first mailing list called mailman must be created:

newlist mailman

root@server1:~# newlist mailman
Enter the email of the person running the list:
 <– admin email address, e.g. listadmin@example.com
Initial mailman password: <– admin password for the mailman list
To finish creating your mailing list, you must edit your /etc/aliases (or
equivalent) file by adding the following lines, and possibly running the
`newaliases’ program:

## mailman mailing list
mailman:              “|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman post mailman”
mailman-admin:        “|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman admin mailman”
mailman-bounces:      “|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman bounces mailman”
mailman-confirm:      “|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman confirm mailman”
mailman-join:         “|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman join mailman”
mailman-leave:        “|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman leave mailman”
mailman-owner:        “|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman owner mailman”
mailman-request:      “|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman request mailman”
mailman-subscribe:    “|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe mailman”
mailman-unsubscribe:  “|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe mailman”

Hit enter to notify mailman owner… <– ENTER

root@server1:~#

Open /etc/aliases afterwards…

nano /etc/aliases

… and add the following lines:

[...]
## mailman mailing list
mailman:              "|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman post mailman"
mailman-admin:        "|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman admin mailman"
mailman-bounces:      "|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman bounces mailman"
mailman-confirm:      "|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman confirm mailman"
mailman-join:         "|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman join mailman"
mailman-leave:        "|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman leave mailman"
mailman-owner:        "|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman owner mailman"
mailman-request:      "|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman request mailman"
mailman-subscribe:    "|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman subscribe mailman"
mailman-unsubscribe:  "|/var/lib/mailman/mail/mailman unsubscribe mailman"

Run

newaliases

afterwards and restart Postfix:

service postfix restart

Then start the Mailman daemon:

service mailman start

After you have installed ISPConfig 3, you can access Mailman as follows:

The ISPConfig apps vhost on port 8081 for nginx comes with a Mailman configuration, so you can use http://server1.example.com:8081/cgi-bin/mailman/admin/<listname> or http://server1.example.com:8081/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/<listname> to access Mailman.

If you want to use Mailman from your web sites, this is a bit more complicated than for Apache because nginx does not have global aliases (i.e., aliases that can be defined for all vhosts). Therefore you have to define these aliases for each vhost from which you want to access Mailman.

To do this, paste the following into the nginx Directives field on the Options tab of the web site in ISPConfig:

        location /cgi-bin/mailman {
               root /usr/lib/;
               fastcgi_split_path_info (^/cgi-bin/mailman/[^/]*)(.*)$;
               include /etc/nginx/fastcgi_params;
               fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
               fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_path_info;
               fastcgi_param PATH_TRANSLATED $document_root$fastcgi_path_info;
               fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
               fastcgi_pass unix:/var/run/fcgiwrap.socket;
        }

        location /images/mailman {
               alias /usr/share/images/mailman;
        }

        location /pipermail {
               alias /var/lib/mailman/archives/public;
               autoindex on;
        }

This defines the alias /cgi-bin/mailman/ for your vhost, which means you can access the Mailman admin interface for a list at http://<vhost>/cgi-bin/mailman/admin/<listname>, and the web page for users of a mailing list can be found at http://<vhost>/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/<listname>.

Under http://<vhost>/pipermail you can find the mailing list archives.

13 Install PureFTPd and Quota

PureFTPd and quota can be installed with the following command:

apt-get install pure-ftpd-common pure-ftpd-mysql quota quotatool

Edit the file /etc/default/pure-ftpd-common

nano /etc/default/pure-ftpd-common

… and make sure that the start mode is set to standalone and set VIRTUALCHROOT=true:

[...]
STANDALONE_OR_INETD=standalone
[...]
VIRTUALCHROOT=true
[...]

Now we configure PureFTPd to allow FTP and TLS sessions. FTP is a very insecure protocol because all passwords and all data are transferred in clear text. By using TLS, the whole communication can be encrypted, thus making FTP much more secure.

If you want to allow FTP and TLS sessions, run

echo 1 > /etc/pure-ftpd/conf/TLS

In order to use TLS, we must create an SSL certificate. I create it in /etc/ssl/private/, therefore I create that directory first:

mkdir -p /etc/ssl/private/

Afterwards, we can generate the SSL certificate as follows:

openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 7300 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout /etc/ssl/private/pure-ftpd.pem -out /etc/ssl/private/pure-ftpd.pem

Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]: <– Enter your Country Name (e.g., “DE”).
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:
<– Enter your State or Province Name.
Locality Name (eg, city) []:
<– Enter your City.
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:
<– Enter your Organization Name (e.g., the name of your company).
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
<– Enter your Organizational Unit Name (e.g. “IT Department”).
Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:
<– Enter the Fully Qualified Domain Name of the system (e.g. “server1.example.com”).
Email Address []:
<– Enter your Email Address.

Change the permissions of the SSL certificate:

chmod 600 /etc/ssl/private/pure-ftpd.pem

Then restart PureFTPd:

service pure-ftpd-mysql restart

Edit /etc/fstab. Mine looks like this (I added ,usrjquota=quota.user,grpjquota=quota.group,jqfmt=vfsv0 to the partition with the mount point /):

nano /etc/fstab

# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# Use 'blkid' to print the universally unique identifier for a
# device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name devices
# that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5).
#
# <file system> <mount point> <type> <options> <dump> <pass>
# / was on /dev/sda1 during installation
UUID=3dc3b58d-97e5-497b-8254-a913fdfc5408 / ext4 errors=remount-ro,usrjquota=quota.user,grpjquota=quota.group,jqfmt=vfsv0 0 1
# swap was on /dev/sda5 during installation
UUID=36bf486e-8f76-492d-89af-5a8eb3ce8a02 none swap sw 0 0
/dev/sr0 /media/cdrom0 udf,iso9660 user,noauto 0 0

To enable quota, run these commands:

mount -o remount /

quotacheck -avugm
quotaon -avug

14 Install BIND DNS Server

BIND can be installed as follows:

apt-get install bind9 dnsutils

If yor server is a virtual machine, then it is highly recommended to install the haveged daemon to get a higher entropy for DNSSEC signing. You can install haveged on non virtual servers as well, it should not hurt.

apt-get install haveged

An explanation on that topic can be found here.

15 Install Vlogger, Webalizer, and AWstats

Vlogger, webalizer, and AWstats can be installed as follows:

apt-get install vlogger webalizer awstats geoip-database libclass-dbi-mysql-perl

Open /etc/cron.d/awstats afterwards…

nano /etc/cron.d/awstats

… and comment out everything in that file:

#MAILTO=root

#*/10 * * * * www-data [ -x /usr/share/awstats/tools/update.sh ] && /usr/share/awstats/tools/update.sh

# Generate static reports:
#10 03 * * * www-data [ -x /usr/share/awstats/tools/buildstatic.sh ] && /usr/share/awstats/tools/buildstatic.sh

16 Install Jailkit

Jailkit is needed only if you want to chroot SSH users. It can be installed as follows (important: Jailkit must be installed before ISPConfig – it cannot be installed afterwards!):

apt-get install build-essential autoconf automake libtool flex bison debhelper binutils

cd /tmp
wget http://olivier.sessink.nl/jailkit/jailkit-2.19.tar.gz
tar xvfz jailkit-2.19.tar.gz
cd jailkit-2.19
./debian/rules binary

You can now install the Jailkit .deb package as follows:

cd ..
dpkg -i jailkit_2.19-1_*.deb
rm -rf jailkit-2.19*

17 Install Fail2ban and UFW Firewall

This is optional but recommended, because the ISPConfig monitor tries to show the log:

apt-get install fail2ban

To make fail2ban monitor PureFTPd and Dovecot, create the file /etc/fail2ban/jail.local:

nano /etc/fail2ban/jail.local

[pureftpd]
enabled  = true
port     = ftp
filter   = pureftpd
logpath  = /var/log/syslog
maxretry = 3

[dovecot-pop3imap]
enabled = true
filter = dovecot-pop3imap
action = iptables-multiport[name=dovecot-pop3imap, port="pop3,pop3s,imap,imaps", protocol=tcp]
logpath = /var/log/mail.log
maxretry = 5

[postfix-sasl]
enabled  = true
port     = smtp
filter   = postfix-sasl
logpath  = /var/log/mail.log
maxretry = 3

Then create the following two filter files:

nano /etc/fail2ban/filter.d/pureftpd.conf

[Definition]
failregex = .*pure-ftpd: \(.*@<HOST>\) \[WARNING\] Authentication failed for user.*
ignoreregex =

nano /etc/fail2ban/filter.d/dovecot-pop3imap.conf

[Definition]
failregex = (?: pop3-login|imap-login): .*(?:Authentication failure|Aborted login \(auth failed|Aborted login \(tried to use disabled|Disconnected \(auth failed|Aborted login \(\d+ authentication attempts).*rip=(?P<host>\S*),.*
ignoreregex =

Then, to add the ignoreregex line in the postfix-sasl filter file, run:

echo “ignoreregex =” >> /etc/fail2ban/filter.d/postfix-sasl.conf

Restart fail2ban afterwards:

service fail2ban restart

To install the UFW firewall, run this apt command:

apt-get install ufw

Install RoundCube

Roundcube is not available in the Debian 8 main repository, but we can get it trough the backports.

Install RoundCube with this command:

apt-get install roundcube roundcube-core roundcube-mysql roundcube-plugins

The installer will ask the following questions:

Configure database for roundcube with dbconfig.common? <– yes
Select the database type: <– mysql
Password of the databases administrative user: <– enter the MySQL root password here.
MySQL application password for roundcube: <– press enter

Then edit the RoundCube /etc/roundcube/config.inc.php file and adjust a few settings:

nano /etc/roundcube/config.inc.php

Set the default_host and smtp_server to localhost.

$config['default_host'] = 'localhost';
$config['smtp_server'] = 'localhost';

ISPConfig has some configuration in the nginx apps vhost for squirrelmail which works for roundcube as well. We activate it with:

ln -s /usr/share/roundcube /usr/share/squirrelmail

Now you can access RoundCube as follows:

http://192.168.1.100:8081/webmail
http://server1.example.com:8081/webmail
(after you have installed ISPConfig, see the next chapter)

19 Install ISPConfig 3

Before you start the ISPConfig installation, make sure that Apache is stopped (if it is installed – it is possible that some of your installed packages have installed Apache as a dependency without you knowing). If Apache2 is already installed on the system, stop it now…

service apache2 stop

… and remove Apache’s system startup links:

update-rc.d -f apache2 remove

Make sure that nginx is running:

service nginx restart

(If you have both Apache and nginx installed, the installer asks you which one you want to use: Apache and nginx detected. Select server to use for ISPConfig: (apache,nginx) [apache]:

Type nginx. If only Apache or nginx are installed, this is automatically detected by the installer, and no question is asked.)

To install ISPConfig 3 from the latest released version, do this:

cd /tmp
wget http://www.ispconfig.org/downloads/ISPConfig-3-stable.tar.gz
tar xfz ISPConfig-3-stable.tar.gz
cd ispconfig3_install/install/

The next step is to run

php -q install.php

This will start the ISPConfig 3 installer. The installer will configure all services like Postfix, SASL, Courier, etc. for you. A manual setup as required for ISPConfig 2 (perfect setup guides) is not necessary.

# php -q install.php

——————————————————————————–
_____ ___________ _____ __ _ ____
|_ _/ ___| ___ \ / __ \ / _(_) /__ \
| | \ `–.| |_/ / | / \/ ___ _ __ | |_ _ __ _ _/ /
| | `–. \ __/ | | / _ \| ‘_ \| _| |/ _` | |_ |
_| |_/\__/ / | | \__/\ (_) | | | | | | | (_| | ___\ \
\___/\____/\_| \____/\___/|_| |_|_| |_|\__, | \____/
__/ |
|___/
——————————————————————————–

>> Initial configuration

Operating System: Debian 8.0 (Jessie) or compatible

Following will be a few questions for primary configuration so be careful.
Default values are in [brackets] and can be accepted with <ENTER>.
Tap in “quit” (without the quotes) to stop the installer.

Select language (en,de) [en]: <– Hit Enter

Installation mode (standard,expert) [standard]: <– Hit Enter

Full qualified hostname (FQDN) of the server, eg server1.domain.tld [server1.canomi.com]: <– Hit Enter

MySQL server hostname [localhost]: <– Hit Enter

MySQL server port [3306]: <– Hit Enter

MySQL root username [root]: <– Hit Enter

MySQL root password []: <– Enter your MySQL root password

MySQL database to create [dbispconfig]: <– Hit Enter

MySQL charset [utf8]: <– Hit Enter

Apache and nginx detected. Select server to use for ISPConfig: (apache,nginx) [apache]: <– nginx

Configuring Postgrey
Configuring Postfix
Generating a 4096 bit RSA private key
……………………………………………………………..++
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….++
writing new private key to ‘smtpd.key’
—–
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter ‘.’, the field will be left blank.
—–
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]: <– Enter 2 letter country code
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]: <– Enter the name of the  state
Locality Name (eg, city) []: <– Enter your city
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]: <– Enter company name or press enter
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []: <– Hit Enter
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []: <– Enter the server hostname, in my case: server1.example.com
Email Address []: <– Hit Enter
Configuring Mailman
Configuring Dovecot
Configuring Spamassassin
Configuring Amavisd
Configuring Getmail
Configuring BIND
Configuring Jailkit
Configuring Pureftpd
Configuring Nginx
Configuring vlogger
Configuring Metronome XMPP Server
writing new private key to ‘localhost.key’
—–
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]: <– Enter 2 letter country code
Locality Name (eg, city) []: <– Enter your city
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]: <– Enter company name or press enter
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []: <– Hit Enter
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) [server1.canomi.com]: <– Enter the server hostname, in my case: server1.example.com
Email Address []: <– Hit Enter

Configuring UFW Firewall
Configuring Fail2ban
[INFO] service OpenVZ not detected
Configuring Apps vhost
Installing ISPConfig
ISPConfig Port [8080]:

Admin password [admin]:

Do you want a secure (SSL) connection to the ISPConfig web interface (y,n) [y]: <– Hit Enter

Generating RSA private key, 4096 bit long modulus
…………………..++
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..++
e is 65537 (0x10001)
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter ‘.’, the field will be left blank.
—–
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]: <– Enter 2 letter country code
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]: <– Enter the name of the  state
Locality Name (eg, city) []: <– Enter your city
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]: <– Enter company name or press enter
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []: <– Hit Enter
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []: <– Enter the server hostname, in my case: server1.example.com
Email Address []: <– Hit Enter

Please enter the following ‘extra’ attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []: <– Hit Enter
An optional company name []: <– Hit Enter
writing RSA key

Configuring DBServer
Installing ISPConfig crontab
no crontab for root

no crontab for getmail
Detect IP addresses
Restarting services …
Installation completed.

The installer automatically configures all underlying services, so no manual configuration is needed.

Afterward you can access ISPConfig 3 under http(s)://server1.example.com:8080/ or http(s)://192.168.1.100:8080/ ( http or https depends on what you chose during installation). Log in with the username admin and the password admin (you should change the default password after your first login):

The system is now ready to be used.

21 Additional Notes

21.1 OpenVZ

If the Debian server that you’ve just set up in this tutorial is an OpenVZ container (virtual machine), you should do this on the host system (I’m assuming that the ID of the OpenVZ container is 101 – replace it with the correct VPSID on your system):

VPSID=101
for CAP in CHOWN DAC_READ_SEARCH SETGID SETUID NET_BIND_SERVICE NET_ADMIN SYS_CHROOT SYS_NICE CHOWN DAC_READ_SEARCH SETGID SETUID NET_BIND_SERVICE NET_ADMIN SYS_CHROOT SYS_NICE
do
vzctl set $VPSID –capability ${CAP}:on –save
done

22 Virtual machine image download of this tutorial

This tutorial is available as ready to use virtual machine image in ovf/ova format that is compatible with VMWare and Virtualbox. The virtual machine image uses the following login details:

SSH / Shell Login

Username: administrator
Password: Kreationnext

Username: root
Password: Kreationnext

ISPConfig Login

Username: admin
Password: Kreationnext

MySQL Login

Username: root
Password: Kreationnext

The IP of the VM is 192.168.1.100, it can be changed in the file /etc/network/interfaces. Please change all the above passwords to secure the virtual machine.

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