This is a detailed description about how to set up a Fedora 13 server that offers all services needed by ISPs and hosters: Apache web server (SSL-capable) with PHP5/Ruby/Python, Postfix mail server with SMTP-AUTH and TLS, BIND DNS server, Proftpd FTP server, MySQL server, Dovecot POP3/IMAP, Quota, Firewall, etc. This tutorial is written for the 64-bit version of Fedora 13, but should apply to the 32-bit version with very little modifications as well. In the end you should have a system that works reliably, and if you like you can install the free webhosting control panel ISPConfig (i.e., ISPConfig runs on it out of the box).
I will use the following software:
- Web Server: Apache 2.2.15
- PHP 5.3.2
- Database Server: MySQL 5.1.46
- Mail Server: Postfix
- DNS Server: BIND9 (chrooted)
- FTP Server: proftpd
- POP3/IMAP server: Dovecot
- Webalizer for web site statistics
Please note that this setup does not work for ISPConfig 3! It is valid for ISPConfig 2 only!
I want to say first that this is not the only way of setting up such a system. There are many ways of achieving this goal but this is the way I take. I do not issue any guarantee that this will work for you!
To install such a system you will need the following:
- Download the Fedora 13 DVD iso image from a mirror near you (the list of mirrors can be found here: http://mirrors.fedoraproject.org/publiclist/Fedora/13/), e.g. http://ftp.tu-chemnitz.de/pub/linux/fedora/linux/releases/13/Fedora/x86_64/iso/Fedora-13-x86_64-DVD.iso
- an Internet connection…
2 Preliminary Note
In this tutorial I use the hostname server1.example.com with the IP address 192.168.0.100 and the gateway 192.168.0.1. These settings might differ for you, so you have to replace them where appropriate.
3 Install The Base System
Boot from your Fedora 13 DVD. Select Install a new system or upgrade an existing system:
It can take a long time to test the installation media so we skip this test here:
The welcome screen of the Fedora installer appears. Click on Next:
Choose your language next:
Select your keyboard layout:
I assume that you use a locally attached hard drive, so you should select Basic Storage Devices here:
If you see the following message (Error processing drive: /dev/sda. This device may need to be reinitialized. REINITIALIZING WILL CAUSE ALL DATA TO BE LOST!), please click on Re-initialize:
Fill in the hostname of the server:
Choose your time zone:
Give root a password:
Next we do the partitioning. Select Replace existing Linux system(s). This will give you a small /boot partition and a large / partition which is fine for our purposes:
Select Write changes to disk:
The hard drive is being formatted:
Now we select the software we want to install. Uncheck Graphical Desktop and check Web server instead. Then check Customize now. Afterwards, select the additional repositories Fedora 13 – x86_64 and Fedora 13 – x86_64 – Updates (if you are on an i386 system, the names are probably Fedora 13 – i386 and Fedora 13 – i386 – Updates):
As the last two repositories need an Internet connection, a new window pops up where you have to configure your network card. Select Enable IPv4 support, but disable Use dynamic IP configuration (DHCP); then give your network card a static IP address and netmask (in this tutorial I’m using the IP address 192.168.0.100 and netmask 255.255.255.0 for demonstration purposes; if you are not sure about the right values, http://www.subnetmask.info might help you). Also fill in your gateway (e.g. 192.168.0.1) and one nameserver (e.g. 220.127.116.11):
The details for the last two repositories should now be retrieved, and the checkboxes in front of them should be marked. Click on Next:
Now we must select the package groups we want to install. Select Editors, Text-based Internet, Development Libraries, Development Tools, DNS Name Server, FTP Server, Mail Server, MySQL Database, Server Configuration Tools, Web Server, Administration Tools, Base, Hardware Support, Java, System Tools (unselect all other package groups) and click on Next:
The installation begins. This will take a few minutes:
Finally, the installation is complete, and you can remove your DVD from the computer and reboot it:
Finally, the installation is complete, and you can remove your DVD from the computer and reboot it:
After the reboot, you will see this screen. Select Firewall configuration and hit Run Tool:
I want to install ISPConfig at the end of this tutorial which comes with its own firewall. That’s why I disable the default Fedora firewall now. Of course, you are free to leave it on and configure it to your needs (but then you shouldn’t use any other firewall later on as it will most probably interfere with the Fedora firewall).
Hit OK afterwards:
Confirm your choice by selecting Yes:
Next select Network configuration:
If you did not configure your network card during the installation (because you did not select the additional online repositories), you can do that now by going to Device configuration:
Select your network interface (usually eth0):
Then fill in your network details – disable DHCP and fill in a static IP address, a netmask, and your gateway, then hit Ok:
Next select Save:
What you should do in all cases (regardless of whether you configured your network connection during the installation or just now) is specify nameservers (during the intial installation, you could fill in just one nameserver, therefore you should specify at least a second one now). Select DNS configuration:
Now you can fill in additional nameservers and hit Ok:
Hit Save&Quit afterwards…
… and leave the Choose a Tool window by selecting Quit:
You should run
now to check if the installer got your IP address right.
Now I disable Fedora’s NetworkManager and enable “normal” networking. NetworkManager is good for desktops where network connections can change (e.g. LAN vs. WLAN), but on a server you usually don’t change network connections:
chkconfig NetworkManager off
chkconfig –levels 35 network on
Check your /etc/resolv.conf if it lists all nameservers that you’ve previously configured:
If nameservers are missing, run
and add the missing nameservers again.
Now, on to the configuration…
4 Adjust /etc/hosts
Next we edit /etc/hosts. Make it look like this:
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost 192.168.0.100 server1.example.com server1 ::1 localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6
It is important that you add a line for server1.example.com and remove server1.example.com and server1 from the 127.0.0.1 line.
5 Disable SELinux
SELinux is a security extension of Fedora that should provide extended security. In my opinion you don’t need it to configure a secure system, and it usually causes more problems than advantages (think of it after you have done a week of trouble-shooting because some service wasn’t working as expected, and then you find out that everything was ok, only SELinux was causing the problem). Therefore I disable it (this is a must if you want to install ISPConfig later on).
Edit /etc/selinux/config and set SELINUX=disabled:
# This file controls the state of SELinux on the system. # SELINUX= can take one of these three values: # enforcing - SELinux security policy is enforced. # permissive - SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing. # disabled - No SELinux policy is loaded. SELINUX=disabled # SELINUXTYPE= can take one of these two values: # targeted - Targeted processes are protected, # mls - Multi Level Security protection. SELINUXTYPE=targeted
Afterwards we must reboot the system:
6 Install Some Software
Next we update our existing packages on the system:
Now we install some software packages that are needed later on:
yum install fetchmail wget bzip2 unzip zip nmap openssl lynx fileutils ncftp gcc gcc-c++
7 Journaled Quota
(If you have chosen a different partitioning scheme than I did, you must adjust this chapter so that quota applies to the partitions where you need it.)
To install quota, we run this command:
yum install quota
Edit /etc/fstab and add ,usrjquota=aquota.user,grpjquota=aquota.group,jqfmt=vfsv0 to the / partition (/dev/mapper/vg_server1-lv_root):
# # /etc/fstab # Created by anaconda on Wed May 26 16:27:45 2010 # # Accessible filesystems, by reference, are maintained under '/dev/disk' # See man pages fstab(5), findfs(8), mount(8) and/or blkid(8) for more info # /dev/mapper/vg_server1-lv_root / ext4 defaults,usrjquota=aquota.user,grpjquota=aquota.group,jqfmt=vfsv0 1 1 UUID=b8323e37-4ae1-4b05-9c72-8019c78f625b /boot ext4 defaults 1 2 /dev/mapper/vg_server1-lv_swap swap swap defaults 0 0 tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 devpts /dev/pts devpts gid=5,mode=620 0 0 sysfs /sys sysfs defaults 0 0 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
touch /aquota.user /aquota.group
chmod 600 /aquota.*
mount -o remount /
to enable quota.
8 Install A Chrooted DNS Server (BIND9)
To install a chrooted BIND9, we do this:
yum install bind-chroot
Next, we change a few permissions:
chmod 755 /var/named/
chmod 775 /var/named/chroot/
chmod 775 /var/named/chroot/var/
chmod 775 /var/named/chroot/var/named/
chmod 775 /var/named/chroot/var/run/
chmod 777 /var/named/chroot/var/run/named/
ln -s ../../ chroot
Then we open /etc/sysconfig/named and make sure that it has the following line to tell BIND that it’s running chrooted in /var/named/chroot:
Then we create the system startup links for BIND:
chkconfig –levels 235 named on
We don’t start BIND now because it will fail because of a missing /var/named/chroot/etc/named.conf. This will be created later on by ISPConfig (if you use ISPConfig’s DNS Manager, that is).
9 MySQL 5
To install MySQL, we do this:
yum install mysql mysql-devel mysql-server
Then we create the system startup links for MySQL (so that MySQL starts automatically whenever the system boots) and start the MySQL server:
chkconfig –levels 235 mysqld on
Now check that networking is enabled. Run
netstat -tap | grep mysql
It should show something like this:
[root@server1 ~]# netstat -tap | grep mysql
tcp 0 0 *:mysql *:* LISTEN 1433/mysqld
If it does not, edit /etc/my.cnf and comment out the option skip-networking:
[...] #skip-networking [...]
and restart your MySQL server:
to set a password for the user root (otherwise anybody can access your MySQL database!).
[root@server1 ~]# mysql_secure_installation
NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MySQL
SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE! PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!
In order to log into MySQL to secure it, we’ll need the current
password for the root user. If you’ve just installed MySQL, and
you haven’t set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.
Enter current password for root (enter for none): <– ENTER
OK, successfully used password, moving on…
Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MySQL
root user without the proper authorisation.
Set root password? [Y/n] <– ENTER
New password: <– yourrootsqlpassword
Re-enter new password: <– yourrootsqlpassword
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MySQL without having to have a user account created for
them. This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother. You should remove them before moving into a
Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] <– ENTER
Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from ‘localhost’. This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.
Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] <– ENTER
By default, MySQL comes with a database named ‘test’ that anyone can
access. This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.
Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] <– ENTER
– Dropping test database…
– Removing privileges on test database…
Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.
Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] <– ENTER
All done! If you’ve completed all of the above steps, your MySQL
installation should now be secure.
Thanks for using MySQL!
10 Postfix With SMTP-AUTH And TLS
Now we install Postfix and Dovecot (Dovecot will be our POP3/IMAP server):
yum install cyrus-sasl cyrus-sasl-devel cyrus-sasl-gssapi cyrus-sasl-md5 cyrus-sasl-plain postfix dovecot
Now we configure SMTP-AUTH and TLS:
postconf -e ‘smtpd_sasl_local_domain =’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous’
postconf -e ‘broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_sasl_authenticated_header = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_recipient_restrictions = permit_sasl_authenticated,permit_mynetworks,reject_unauth_destination’
postconf -e ‘inet_interfaces = all’
postconf -e ‘mynetworks = 127.0.0.0/8 [::1]/128’
We must edit /usr/lib64/sasl2/smtpd.conf so that Postfix allows PLAIN and LOGIN logins (on 32bit systems, this file is in /usr/lib/sasl2/smtpd.conf). It should look like this:
pwcheck_method: saslauthd mech_list: plain login
Afterwards we create the certificates for TLS:
openssl genrsa -des3 -rand /etc/hosts -out smtpd.key 1024
chmod 600 smtpd.key
openssl req -new -key smtpd.key -out smtpd.csr
openssl x509 -req -days 3650 -in smtpd.csr -signkey smtpd.key -out smtpd.crt
openssl rsa -in smtpd.key -out smtpd.key.unencrypted
mv -f smtpd.key.unencrypted smtpd.key
openssl req -new -x509 -extensions v3_ca -keyout cakey.pem -out cacert.pem -days 3650
Next we configure Postfix for TLS:
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_auth_only = no’
postconf -e ‘smtp_use_tls = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_use_tls = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/ssl/smtpd.key’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/ssl/smtpd.crt’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/ssl/cacert.pem’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_loglevel = 1’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_received_header = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s’
postconf -e ‘tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom’
Then we set the hostname in our Postfix installation (make sure you replace server1.example.com with your own hostname):
postconf -e ‘myhostname = server1.example.com’
After these configuration steps you should now have a /etc/postfix/main.cf that looks like this (I have removed all comments from it):
queue_directory = /var/spool/postfix command_directory = /usr/sbin daemon_directory = /usr/libexec/postfix data_directory = /var/lib/postfix mail_owner = postfix inet_interfaces = all inet_protocols = all mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain, localhost unknown_local_recipient_reject_code = 550 alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases alias_database = hash:/etc/aliases debug_peer_level = 2 debugger_command = PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/X11R6/bin ddd $daemon_directory/$process_name $process_id & sleep 5 sendmail_path = /usr/sbin/sendmail.postfix newaliases_path = /usr/bin/newaliases.postfix mailq_path = /usr/bin/mailq.postfix setgid_group = postdrop html_directory = no manpage_directory = /usr/share/man sample_directory = /usr/share/doc/postfix-2.7.0/samples readme_directory = /usr/share/doc/postfix-2.7.0/README_FILES smtpd_sasl_local_domain = smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes smtpd_sasl_authenticated_header = yes smtpd_recipient_restrictions = permit_sasl_authenticated,permit_mynetworks,reject_unauth_destination mynetworks = 127.0.0.0/8 [::1]/128 smtpd_tls_auth_only = no smtp_use_tls = yes smtpd_use_tls = yes smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/ssl/smtpd.key smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/ssl/smtpd.crt smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/postfix/ssl/cacert.pem smtpd_tls_loglevel = 1 smtpd_tls_received_header = yes smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom myhostname = server1.example.com
Now start Postfix, saslauthd, and Dovecot:
chkconfig –levels 235 sendmail off
chkconfig –levels 235 postfix on
chkconfig –levels 235 saslauthd on
chkconfig –levels 235 dovecot on
To see if SMTP-AUTH and TLS work properly now run the following command:
telnet localhost 25
After you have established the connection to your Postfix mail server type
If you see the lines
250-AUTH PLAIN LOGIN
everything is fine.
[root@server1 ssl]# telnet localhost 25
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is ‘^]’.
220 server1.example.com ESMTP Postfix
250-AUTH PLAIN LOGIN
221 2.0.0 Bye
Connection closed by foreign host.
to return to the system’s shell.
Dovecot uses Maildir format (not mbox), so if you install ISPConfig on the server, please make sure you enable Maildir under Management -> Server -> Settings -> Email. ISPConfig will then do the necessary configuration.
If you do not want to install ISPConfig, then you must configure Postfix to deliver emails to a user’s Maildir (you can also do this if you use ISPConfig – it doesn’t hurt ;-)):
postconf -e ‘home_mailbox = Maildir/’
postconf -e ‘mailbox_command =’
11 Apache2 With PHP, Ruby, Python, WebDAV
Now we install Apache with PHP5 (this is PHP 5.3.2):
yum install php php-devel php-gd php-imap php-ldap php-mysql php-odbc php-pear php-xml php-xmlrpc php-eaccelerator php-magickwand php-magpierss php-mapserver php-mbstring php-mcrypt php-mhash php-mssql php-shout php-snmp php-soap php-tidy curl curl-devel perl-libwww-perl ImageMagick libxml2 libxml2-devel
Then edit /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf:
and change DirectoryIndex to
[...] DirectoryIndex index.html index.htm index.shtml index.cgi index.php index.php3 index.pl [...]
Now configure your system to start Apache at boot time:
chkconfig –levels 235 httpd on
11.1 Disable PHP Globally
(If you do not plan to install ISPConfig on this server, please skip this section!)
In ISPConfig you will configure PHP on a per-website basis, i.e. you can specify which website can run PHP scripts and which one cannot. This can only work if PHP is disabled globally because otherwise all websites would be able to run PHP scripts, no matter what you specify in ISPConfig.
To disable PHP globally, we edit /etc/httpd/conf.d/php.conf and comment out the AddHandler and AddType lines:
# # PHP is an HTML-embedded scripting language which attempts to make it # easy for developers to write dynamically generated webpages. # <IfModule prefork.c> LoadModule php5_module modules/libphp5.so </IfModule> <IfModule worker.c> LoadModule php5_module modules/libphp5-zts.so </IfModule> # # Cause the PHP interpreter to handle files with a .php extension. # #AddHandler php5-script .php #AddType text/html .php # # Add index.php to the list of files that will be served as directory # indexes. # DirectoryIndex index.php # # Uncomment the following line to allow PHP to pretty-print .phps # files as PHP source code: # #AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps
Afterwards we restart Apache:
Starting with version 2.2.20, ISPConfig has built-in support for Ruby. Instead of using CGI/FastCGI, ISPConfig depends on mod_ruby being available in the server’s Apache.
For Fedora 13, there’s no mod_ruby package available, so we must compile it ourselves. First we install some prerequisites:
yum install httpd-devel ruby ruby-devel
Next we download and install mod_ruby as follows:
tar zxvf mod_ruby-1.3.0.tar.gz
Finally we must add the mod_ruby module to the Apache configuration, so we create the file /etc/httpd/conf.d/ruby.conf…
LoadModule ruby_module modules/mod_ruby.so
… and restart Apache:
You can find more details about mod_ruby in this article.
11.3 Installing mod_python
To install mod_python, we simply run…
yum install mod_python
… and restart Apache afterwards:
WebDAV should already be enabled, but to check this, open /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf and make sure that the following two modules are active:
[...] LoadModule dav_module modules/mod_dav.so [...] LoadModule dav_fs_module modules/mod_dav_fs.so [...]
If you have to modify /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf, don’t forget to restart Apache afterwards:
ISPConfig has better support for proftpd than vsftpd, so let’s remove vsftpd and install proftpd:
yum remove vsftpd
yum install proftpd
Now we can create the system startup links for Proftpd and start it:
chkconfig –levels 235 proftpd on
To install webalizer, just run
yum install webalizer
14 Synchronize The System Clock
If you want to have the system clock synchronized with an NTP server do the following:
yum install ntp
chkconfig –levels 235 ntpd on
15 Install Some Perl Modules
ISPConfig comes with SpamAssassin which needs a few Perl modules to work. We install the required Perl modules with a single command:
yum install perl-HTML-Parser perl-DBI perl-Net-DNS perl-Digest-SHA1 perl-ExtUtils-AutoInstall perl-NetAddr-IP perl-Archive-Tar
The configuration of the server is now finished. You can now install ISPConfig on it, following these instructions: http://www.ispconfig.org/manual_installation.htm
Before you install ISPConfig, there’s one important thing you must do. Open /usr/include/stdio.h and replace getline with parseline in line 673:
[...] /* Like `getdelim', but reads up to a newline. This function is not part of POSIX and therefore no official cancellation point. But due to similarity with an POSIX interface or due to the implementation it is a cancellation point and therefore not marked with __THROW. */ extern _IO_ssize_t parseline (char **__restrict __lineptr, size_t *__restrict __n, FILE *__restrict __stream) __wur; #endif [...]
If you don’t do this, the installation will fail because of the following error:
htpasswd.c:101: error: conflicting types for âgetlineâ
/usr/include/stdio.h:653: note: previous declaration of âgetlineâ was here
make: *** [htpasswd.o] Error 1
make: Leaving directory `/home/install_ispconfig/compile_aps/apache_1.3.41/src/support’
make: *** [build-support] Error 1
make: Leaving directory `/home/install_ispconfig/compile_aps/apache_1.3.41′
make: *** [build] Error 2
ERROR: Could not make Apache
You can undo the change to /usr/include/stdio.h after the successful ISPConfig installation (but don’t forget to change it back whenever you want to update ISPConfig!).
16.1 A Note On SuExec
If you want to run CGI scripts under suExec, you should specify /var/www as the web root for websites created by ISPConfig as Fedora’s suExec is compiled with /var/www as Doc_Root. Run
and the output should look like this:
[root@server1 ~]# /usr/sbin/suexec -V
So if you want to use suExec with ISPconfig, don’t change the default web root (which is /var/www) if you use expert mode during the ISPConfig installation (in standard mode you can’t change the web root anyway so you’ll be able to use suExec in any case).
- Fedora: http://fedoraproject.org/
- ISPConfig: http://www.ispconfig.org/