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Virtual Users And Domains With Postfix, Courier And MySQL (Fedora Core 5)


This tutorial is Copyright (c) 2006 by Falko Timme. It is derived from a tutorial from Christoph Haas which you can find at http://workaround.org. You are free to use this tutorial under the Creative Commons license 2.5 or any later version.

This document describes how to install a mail server based on Postfix that is based on virtual users and domains, i.e. users and domains that are in a MySQL database. I’ll also demonstrate the installation and configuration of Courier (Courier-POP3, Courier-IMAP), so that Courier can authenticate against the same MySQL database Postfix uses.

The resulting Postfix server is capable of SMTP-AUTH and TLS and quota (quota is not built into Postfix by default, I’ll show how to patch your Postfix appropriately). Passwords are stored in encrypted form in the database (most documents I found were dealing with plain text passwords which is a security risk). In addition to that, this tutorial covers the installation of Amavisd, SpamAssassin and ClamAV so that emails will be scanned for spam and viruses.

The advantage of such a “virtual” setup (virtual users and domains in a MySQL database) is that it is far more performant than a setup that is based on “real” system users. With this virtual setup your mail server can handle thousands of domains and users. Besides, it is easier to administrate because you only have to deal with the MySQL database when you add new users/domains or edit existing ones. No more postmap commands to create db files, no more reloading of Postfix, etc. For the administration of the MySQL database you can use web based tools like phpMyAdmin which will also be installed in this howto. The third advantage is that users have an email address as user name (instead of a user name + an email address) which is easier to understand and keep in mind.

This tutorial is based on Fedora Core 5 (i386). You should already have set up a basic Fedora system, as described here (for a x86_64 system, but the procedure for i386 systems is the same): http://www.kreationnext.com/perfect_setup_fedora_core_5 and http://www.kreationnext.com/perfect_setup_fedora_core_5_p2. Plus, you should make sure that the firewall is off (at least for now) and that SELinux is disabled (this is important!), as shown on http://www.kreationnext.com/perfect_setup_fedora_core_5_p3.

This howto is meant as a practical guide; it does not cover the theoretical backgrounds. They are treated in a lot of other documents in the web.

This document comes without warranty of any kind! I want to say that this is not the only way of setting up such a system. There are many ways of achieving this goal but this is the way I take. I do not issue any guarantee that this will work for you!

 

1 Edit /etc/hosts

Our hostname in this example is server1.example.com, and it has the IP address 192.168.0.100, so we change /etc/hosts as follows:

vi /etc/hosts

# Do not remove the following line, or various programs
# that require network functionality will fail.
127.0.0.1               localhost.localdomain localhost
192.168.0.100           server1.example.com server1

 

2 Configure An Additional Repository For Fedora Packages

Some of the packages we have to install (such as courier-imap) are not included in the official Fedora repositories, so we have to add another repository to yum:

rpm -ivh http://www.enlartenment.com/packages/fedora/5/i386/enlartenment-release-1.1-2.fc5.mf.noarch.rpm

Afterwards, we must set enabled to 1 in /etc/yum.repos.d/enlartenment.repo:

vi /etc/yum.repos.d/enlartenment.repo

[enlartenment]
name=Enlartenment Repository for $releasever - $basearch
baseurl=http://www.enlartenment.com/packages/fedora/$releasever/$basearch/
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-enlartenment
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1

[enlartenment-sources]
name=Enlartenment Repository for $releasever - Sources
baseurl=http://www.enlartenment.com/packages/fedora/$releasever/SRPMS/
gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-enlartenment
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1

Next, we import that repository’s GPG key:

rpm –import http://www.enlartenment.com/RPM-GPG-KEY.mf

 

3 Install Postfix, Courier, Saslauthd, MySQL, phpMyAdmin

This can all be installed with one single command:

yum install ntp httpd mysql-server php php-mysql php-mbstring rpm-build gcc mysql-devel openssl-devel cyrus-sasl-devel pkgconfig zlib-devel maildrop courier-imap courier-authlib-mysql phpmyadmin pcre-devel openldap-devel

When you see this:

warning: rpmts_HdrFromFdno: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY, key ID 4f2a6fd2
Public key for ntp-4.2.0.a.20050816-11.FC5.i386.rpm is not installed
Retrieving GPG key from file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-fedora
Importing GPG key 0x4F2A6FD2 “Fedora Project <fedora@redhat.com>”
Is this ok [y/N]:

please answer with y.

 

4 Apply Quota Patch To Postfix

We have to get the Postfix source rpm, patch it with the quota patch, build a new Postfix rpm package and install it.

cd /usr/src
wget http://ftp-stud.fht-esslingen.de/pub/Mirrors/fedora/linux/core/5/source/SRPMS/postfix-2.2.8-1.2.src.rpm
rpm -ivh postfix-2.2.8-1.2.src.rpm
cd /usr/src/redhat/SOURCES
wget http://web.onda.com.br/nadal/postfix/VDA/postfix-2.2.8-vda.patch.gz
gunzip postfix-2.2.8-vda.patch.gz
cd /usr/src/redhat/SPECS/

Now we must edit the file postfix.spec:

vi postfix.spec

Change %define MYSQL 0 to %define MYSQL 1, add Patch0: postfix-2.2.8-vda.patch to the # Patches stanza, and finally add %patch0 -p1 -b .vda to the %setup -q stanza:

[...]
%define MYSQL 1
[...]
# Patches

Patch0: postfix-2.2.8-vda.patch
Patch1: postfix-2.1.1-config.patch
Patch3: postfix-alternatives.patch
Patch4: postfix-hostname-fqdn.patch
Patch6: postfix-2.1.1-obsolete.patch
Patch7: postfix-2.1.5-aliases.patch
Patch8: postfix-large-fs.patch
Patch9: postfix-2.2.5-cyrus.patch
[...]
%setup -q
# Apply obligatory patches
%patch0 -p1 -b .vda
%patch1 -p1 -b .config
%patch3 -p1 -b .alternatives
%patch4 -p1 -b .postfix-hostname-fqdn
%patch6 -p1 -b .obsolete
%patch7 -p1 -b .aliases
%patch8 -p1 -b .large-fs
%patch9 -p1 -b .cyrus
[...]

Then we build our new Postfix rpm package with quota and MySQL support:

rpmbuild -ba postfix.spec

You will see lots of warnings like these that you can ignore:

msg.h:12:1: warning: “/*” within comment
msg.h:14:1: warning: “/*” within comment
msg.h:33:1: warning: “/*” within comment
msg.h:34:1: warning: “/*” within comment
msg.h:35:1: warning: “/*” within comment
msg.h:36:1: warning: “/*” within comment

Our Postfix rpm package is created in /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/i386, so we go there and install it:

cd /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/i386
rpm -ivh postfix-2.2.8-1.2.i386.rpm

(In case you have problems creating the Postfix rpm package, you can download mine from here.)

 

5 Set MySQL Passwords And Configure phpMyAdmin

Start MySQL:

chkconfig –levels 235 mysqld on
/etc/init.d/mysqld start

Then set passwords for the MySQL root account:

mysqladmin -u root password yourrootsqlpassword
mysqladmin -h server1.example.com -u root password yourrootsqlpassword

Now we configure phpMyAdmin. Create /usr/share/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php:

vi /usr/share/phpmyadmin/config.inc.php

<?php
$cfg[PmaAbsoluteUri] = 'http://192.168.0.100/phpmyadmin/';
$i=0;
$i++;
$cfg['Servers'][$i]['auth_type']          = 'http';
?>

Then we change the Apache configuration so that phpMyAdmin allows connections not just from localhost:

vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/phpmyadmin.conf

Alias /phpmyadmin/ "/usr/share/phpmyadmin/"
#<Location "/phpmyadmin/">
#        Order allow,deny
#       Allow from 127.0.0.1
#</Location>

Then we create the system startup links for Apache and start it:

chkconfig –levels 235 httpd on
/etc/init.d/httpd start

Now you can direct your browser to http://server1.example.com/phpmyadmin/ and log in with the user name root and your new root MySQL password.

6 Create The MySQL Database For Postfix/Courier

We create a database called mail:

mysqladmin -u root -p create mail

Next, we go to the MySQL shell:

mysql -u root -p

On the MySQL shell, we create the user mail_admin with the passwort mail_admin_password (replace it with your own password) who has SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE privileges on the mail database. This user will be used by Postfix and Courier to connect to the mail database:

GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON mail.* TO ‘mail_admin’@’localhost’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘mail_admin_password’;
GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON mail.* TO ‘mail_admin’@’localhost.localdomain’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘mail_admin_password’;
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

Still on the MySQL shell, we create the tables that Postfix and Courier need:

USE mail;

CREATE TABLE domains (
domain varchar(50) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (domain) )
TYPE=MyISAM;

CREATE TABLE forwardings (
source varchar(80) NOT NULL,
destination TEXT NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (source) )
TYPE=MyISAM;

CREATE TABLE users (
email varchar(80) NOT NULL,
password varchar(20) NOT NULL,
quota INT(10) DEFAULT ‘10485760’,
PRIMARY KEY (email)
) TYPE=MyISAM;

CREATE TABLE transport (
domain varchar(128) NOT NULL default ”,
transport varchar(128) NOT NULL default ”,
UNIQUE KEY domain (domain)
) TYPE=MyISAM;

quit;

As you may have noticed, with the quit; command we have left the MySQL shell and are back on the Linux shell.

The domains table will store each virtual domain that Postfix should receive emails for (e.g. example.com).

domain
example.com

The forwardings table is for aliasing one email address to another, e.g. forward emails for info@example.com to sales@example.com.

source destination
info@example.com sales@example.com

The users table stores all virtual users (i.e. email addresses, because theemail address and user name is the same) and passwords (in encrypted form!) and a quota value for each mail box (in this example the default value is 10485760 bytes which means 10MB).

email password quota
sales@example.com No9.E4skNvGa. (“secret” in encrypted form) 10485760

The transport table is optional, it is for advanced users. It allows to forward mails for single users, whole domains or all mails to another server. For example,

domain transport
example.com smtp:[1.2.3.4]

would forward all emails for example.com via the smtp protocol to the server with the IP address 1.2.3.4 (the square brackets [] mean “do not make a lookup of the MX DNS record” (which makes sense for IP addresses…). If you use a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) instead you would not use the square brackets.).

 

7 Configure Postfix

Now we have to tell Postfix where it can find all the information in the database. Therefore we have to create six text files. You will notice that I tell Postfix to connect to MySQL on the IP address 127.0.0.1 instead of localhost. This is because Postfix is running in a chroot jail and does not have access to the MySQL socket which it would try to connect if I told Postfix to use localhost. If I use 127.0.0.1 Postfix uses TCP networking to connect to MySQL which is no problem even in a chroot jail (the alternative would be to move the MySQL socket into the chroot jail which causes some other problems).

Now let’s create our six text files.

vi /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual_domains.cf

user = mail_admin
password = mail_admin_password
dbname = mail
query = SELECT domain AS virtual FROM domains WHERE domain='%s'
hosts = 127.0.0.1

vi /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual_forwardings.cf

user = mail_admin
password = mail_admin_password
dbname = mail
query = SELECT destination FROM forwardings WHERE source='%s'
hosts = 127.0.0.1

vi /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual_mailboxes.cf

user = mail_admin
password = mail_admin_password
dbname = mail
query = SELECT CONCAT(SUBSTRING_INDEX(email,'@',-1),'/',SUBSTRING_INDEX(email,'@',1),'/') FROM users WHERE email='%s'
hosts = 127.0.0.1

vi /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual_email2email.cf

user = mail_admin
password = mail_admin_password
dbname = mail
query = SELECT email FROM users WHERE email='%s'
hosts = 127.0.0.1

vi /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual_transports.cf

user = mail_admin
password = mail_admin_password
dbname = mail
query = SELECT transport FROM transport WHERE domain='%s'
hosts = 127.0.0.1

vi /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual_mailbox_limit_maps.cf

user = mail_admin
password = mail_admin_password
dbname = mail
query = SELECT quota FROM users WHERE email='%s'
hosts = 127.0.0.1

(If you compare these files with the files from http://www.kreationnext.com/virtual_postfix_mysql_quota_courier, you will notice that the format is different. This is because the syntax changed from Postfix 2.1 to 2.2. In this tutorial we use Postfix 2.2.8, in the other one it’s 2.1.5.)

chmod o= /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual_*.cf
chgrp postfix /etc/postfix/mysql-virtual_*.cf

Now we create a user and group called vmail with the home directory /home/vmail. This is where all mail boxes will be stored.

groupadd -g 5000 vmail
useradd -g vmail -u 5000 vmail -d /home/vmail -m

Next we do some Postfix configuration. Go sure that you replace server1.example.com with a valid FQDN, otherwise your Postfix might not work properly!

postconf -e ‘myhostname = server1.example.com’
postconf -e ‘mydestination = server1.example.com, localhost, localhost.localdomain’
postconf -e ‘mynetworks = 127.0.0.0/8’
postconf -e ‘virtual_alias_domains =’
postconf -e ‘ virtual_alias_maps = proxy:mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual_forwardings.cf, mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual_email2email.cf’
postconf -e ‘virtual_mailbox_domains = proxy:mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual_domains.cf’
postconf -e ‘virtual_mailbox_maps = proxy:mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual_mailboxes.cf’
postconf -e ‘virtual_mailbox_base = /home/vmail’
postconf -e ‘virtual_uid_maps = static:5000’
postconf -e ‘virtual_gid_maps = static:5000’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes’
postconf -e ‘broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_recipient_restrictions = permit_mynetworks, permit_sasl_authenticated, reject_unauth_destination’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_use_tls = yes’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/smtpd.cert’
postconf -e ‘smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/smtpd.key’
postconf -e ‘transport_maps = proxy:mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual_transports.cf’
postconf -e ‘virtual_create_maildirsize = yes’
postconf -e ‘virtual_maildir_extended = yes’
postconf -e ‘virtual_mailbox_limit_maps = proxy:mysql:/etc/postfix/mysql-virtual_mailbox_limit_maps.cf’
postconf -e ‘virtual_mailbox_limit_override = yes’
postconf -e ‘virtual_maildir_limit_message = “The user you are trying to reach is over quota.”‘
postconf -e ‘virtual_overquota_bounce = yes’
postconf -e ‘proxy_read_maps = $local_recipient_maps $mydestination $virtual_alias_maps $virtual_alias_domains $virtual_mailbox_maps $virtual_mailbox_domains $relay_recipient_maps $relay_domains $canonical_maps $sender_canonical_maps $recipient_canonical_maps $relocated_maps $transport_maps $mynetworks $virtual_mailbox_limit_maps’
postconf -e ‘inet_interfaces = all’

Afterwards we create the SSL certificate that is needed for TLS:

cd /etc/postfix
openssl req -new -outform PEM -out smtpd.cert -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes -keyout smtpd.key -keyform PEM -days 365 -x509

<– Enter your Country Name (e.g., “DE”).
<– Enter your State or Province Name.
<– Enter your City.
<– Enter your Organization Name (e.g., the name of your company).
<– Enter your Organizational Unit Name (e.g. “IT Department”).
<– Enter the Fully Qualified Domain Name of the system (e.g. “server1.example.com”).
<– Enter your Email Address.

Then change the permissions of the smtpd.key:

chmod o= /etc/postfix/smtpd.key

 

8 Configure Saslauthd

Edit /usr/lib/sasl2/smtpd.conf. It should look like this:

vi /usr/lib/sasl2/smtpd.conf

pwcheck_method: authdaemond
log_level: 3
mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN
authdaemond_path:/var/spool/authdaemon/socket

Then turn off Sendmail and start Postfix, saslauthd, and courier-authlib:

chmod 755 /var/spool/authdaemon
chkconfig –levels 235 courier-authlib on
/etc/init.d/courier-authlib start

chkconfig –levels 235 sendmail off
chkconfig –levels 235 postfix on
chkconfig –levels 235 saslauthd on
/etc/init.d/sendmail stop
/etc/init.d/postfix start
/etc/init.d/saslauthd start

 

9 Configure Courier

Now we have to tell Courier that it should authenticate against our MySQL database. First, edit /etc/authlib/authdaemonrc and change the value of authmodulelist so that it reads

vi /etc/authlib/authdaemonrc

[...]
authmodulelist="authmysql"
[...]

Then edit /etc/authlib/authmysqlrc. It should look exactly like this (again, make sure to fill in the correct database details):

vi /etc/authlib/authmysqlrc

MYSQL_SERVER localhost
MYSQL_USERNAME mail_admin
MYSQL_PASSWORD mail_admin_password
MYSQL_PORT 0
MYSQL_DATABASE mail
MYSQL_USER_TABLE users
MYSQL_CRYPT_PWFIELD password
#MYSQL_CLEAR_PWFIELD password
MYSQL_UID_FIELD 5000
MYSQL_GID_FIELD 5000
MYSQL_LOGIN_FIELD email
MYSQL_HOME_FIELD "/home/vmail"
MYSQL_MAILDIR_FIELD CONCAT(SUBSTRING_INDEX(email,'@',-1),'/',SUBSTRING_INDEX(email,'@',1),'/')
#MYSQL_NAME_FIELD
MYSQL_QUOTA_FIELD quota

Then restart Courier:

chkconfig –levels 235 courier-imap on
/etc/init.d/courier-authlib restart
/etc/init.d/courier-imap restart

By running

telnet localhost pop3

you can see if your POP3 server is working correctly. It should give back +OK Hello there. (Type quit to get back to the Linux shell.)

10 Install Amavisd-new, SpamAssassin And ClamAV

To install amavisd-new, spamassassin and clamav, run the following command:

yum install amavisd-new spamassassin clamav clamav-data clamav-server clamav-update unzip bzip2 unrar

Now we must edit /etc/amavisd/amavisd.conf.

vi /etc/amavisd/amavisd.conf

In this file we change five places:

1) Change

$mydomain = 'example.com';   # a convenient default for other settings

to

########################
$mydomain = 'localhost';
########################
#$mydomain = 'example.com';   # a convenient default for other settings

2) Change

$sa_tag_level_deflt  = 2.0;  # add spam info headers if at, or above that level
$sa_tag2_level_deflt = 6.31; # add 'spam detected' headers at that level
$sa_kill_level_deflt = 6.31; # triggers spam evasive actions
$sa_dsn_cutoff_level = 10;   # spam level beyond which a DSN is not sent

to

########################
$sa_tag_level_deflt  = 2.0;  # add spam info headers if at, or above that level
$sa_tag2_level_deflt = 4.0; # add 'spam detected' headers at that level
$sa_kill_level_deflt = $sa_tag2_level_deflt; # triggers spam evasive actions
$sa_dsn_cutoff_level = 10;   # spam level beyond which a DSN is not sent
########################

(Of course, you can adjust the spam scores to your liking.)

3) Change

# @lookup_sql_dsn =
#   ( ['DBI:mysql:database=mail;host=127.0.0.1;port=3306', 'user1', 'passwd1'],
#     ['DBI:mysql:database=mail;host=host2', 'username2', 'password2'],
#     ["DBI:SQLite:dbname=$MYHOME/sql/mail_prefs.sqlite", '', ''] );
# @storage_sql_dsn = @lookup_sql_dsn;  # none, same, or separate database

to

# @lookup_sql_dsn =
#   ( ['DBI:mysql:database=mail;host=127.0.0.1;port=3306', 'user1', 'passwd1'],
#     ['DBI:mysql:database=mail;host=host2', 'username2', 'password2'],
#     ["DBI:SQLite:dbname=$MYHOME/sql/mail_prefs.sqlite", '', ''] );

########################
@lookup_sql_dsn =
   ( ['DBI:mysql:database=mail;host=127.0.0.1;port=3306', 'mail_admin', 'mail_admin_password'] );

$sql_select_policy = 'SELECT "Y" as local FROM domains WHERE CONCAT("@",domain) IN (%k)';

$sql_select_white_black_list = undef;  # undef disables SQL white/blacklisting

$recipient_delimiter = '+';                # (default is '+')

$replace_existing_extension = 1;        # (default is false)

$localpart_is_case_sensitive = 0;        # (default is false)
########################

# @storage_sql_dsn = @lookup_sql_dsn;  # none, same, or separate database

(Make sure you fill in the correct database details!)

4) Change

# $recipient_delimiter = '+';  # undef disables address extensions altogether
# when enabling addr extensions do also Postfix/main.cf: recipient_delimiter=+

to

########################
$recipient_delimiter = undef;  # undef disables address extensions altogether
# when enabling addr extensions do also Postfix/main.cf: recipient_delimiter=+
########################

5) Change

$final_virus_destiny      = D_DISCARD;
$final_banned_destiny     = D_BOUNCE;
$final_spam_destiny       = D_DISCARD;
$final_bad_header_destiny = D_BOUNCE;

to

########################
$final_virus_destiny      = D_REJECT;
$final_banned_destiny     = D_REJECT;
$final_spam_destiny       = D_PASS;
$final_bad_header_destiny = D_PASS;
########################

(Of course, it’s up to you to decide what should happen with spam and viruses. I decide to accept spam (D_PASS) so that Spam can be filtered in my email client with a simple filter rule (based on the subject that gets rewritten by amavisd-new if it thinks a mail is spam). The allowed actions (D_PASS, D_DISCARD, D_BOUNCE, and D_REJECT) are explained here: http://www.ijs.si/software/amavisd/amavisd-new-docs.html#actions)

After my changes, /etc/amavisd/amavisd.conf looks like this:

use strict;

# a minimalistic configuration file for amavisd-new with all necessary settings
#
#   see amavisd.conf-default for a list of all variables with their defaults;
#   see amavisd.conf-sample for a traditional-style commented file;
#   for more details see documentation in INSTALL, README_FILES/*
#   and at http://www.ijs.si/software/amavisd/amavisd-new-docs.html


# COMMONLY ADJUSTED SETTINGS:

# @bypass_virus_checks_maps = (1);  # uncomment to DISABLE anti-virus code
# @bypass_spam_checks_maps  = (1);  # uncomment to DISABLE anti-spam code

$max_servers = 2;            # num of pre-forked children (2..15 is common), -m
$daemon_user  = 'amavis';    # (no default;  customary: vscan or amavis), -u
$daemon_group = 'amavis';    # (no default;  customary: vscan or amavis), -g

########################
$mydomain = 'localhost';
########################
#$mydomain = 'example.com';   # a convenient default for other settings

$MYHOME = '/var/spool/amavisd';   # a convenient default for other settings, -H
$TEMPBASE = "$MYHOME/tmp";   # working directory, needs to exist, -T
$ENV{TMPDIR} = $TEMPBASE;    # environment variable TMPDIR
$QUARANTINEDIR = undef;      # -Q
# $quarantine_subdir_levels = 1;  # add level of subdirs to disperse quarantine

# $daemon_chroot_dir = $MYHOME;   # chroot directory or undef, -R

# $db_home   = "$MYHOME/db";      # dir for bdb nanny/cache/snmp databases, -D
# $helpers_home = "$MYHOME/var";  # working directory for SpamAssassin, -S
$lock_file = "/var/run/amavisd/amavisd.lock";  # -L
$pid_file  = "/var/run/amavisd/amavisd.pid";   # -P
#NOTE: create directories $MYHOME/tmp, $MYHOME/var, $MYHOME/db manually

@local_domains_maps = ( [".$mydomain"] );
# @mynetworks = qw( 127.0.0.0/8 [::1] [FE80::]/10 [FEC0::]/10
#                   10.0.0.0/8 172.16.0.0/12 192.168.0.0/16 );

$log_level = 0;              # verbosity 0..5, -d
$log_recip_templ = undef;    # disable by-recipient level-0 log entries
$DO_SYSLOG = 1;              # log via syslogd (preferred)
$syslog_facility = 'mail';   # Syslog facility as a string
           # e.g.: mail, daemon, user, local0, ... local7
$syslog_priority = 'debug';  # Syslog base (minimal) priority as a string,
           # choose from: emerg, alert, crit, err, warning, notice, info, debug

$enable_db = 1;              # enable use of BerkeleyDB/libdb (SNMP and nanny)
$enable_global_cache = 1;    # enable use of libdb-based cache if $enable_db=1

$inet_socket_port = 10024;   # listen on this local TCP port(s) (see $protocol)
$unix_socketname = "$MYHOME/amavisd.sock";  # amavisd-release or amavis-milter
                # option(s) -p overrides $inet_socket_port and $unix_socketname

$interface_policy{'SOCK'}='AM.PDP-SOCK';  # only relevant with $unix_socketname
# Use with amavis-release over a socket or with Petr Rehor's amavis-milter.c
# (with amavis-milter.c from this package or old amavis.c client use 'AM.CL'):
$policy_bank{'AM.PDP-SOCK'} = { protocol=>'AM.PDP' };

########################
$sa_tag_level_deflt  = 2.0;  # add spam info headers if at, or above that level
$sa_tag2_level_deflt = 4.0; # add 'spam detected' headers at that level
$sa_kill_level_deflt = $sa_tag2_level_deflt; # triggers spam evasive actions
$sa_dsn_cutoff_level = 10;   # spam level beyond which a DSN is not sent
########################
# $sa_quarantine_cutoff_level = 20; # spam level beyond which quarantine is off
# $penpals_bonus_score = 4;  # (no effect without a @storage_sql_dsn database)
# $penpals_threshold_high = $sa_kill_level_deflt; # don't waste time on hi spam

$sa_mail_body_size_limit = 512*1024; # don't waste time on SA if mail is larger
$sa_local_tests_only = 0;    # only tests which do not require internet access?

# @lookup_sql_dsn =
#   ( ['DBI:mysql:database=mail;host=127.0.0.1;port=3306', 'user1', 'passwd1'],
#     ['DBI:mysql:database=mail;host=host2', 'username2', 'password2'],
#     ["DBI:SQLite:dbname=$MYHOME/sql/mail_prefs.sqlite", '', ''] );

########################
@lookup_sql_dsn =

   ( ['DBI:mysql:database=mail;host=127.0.0.1;port=3306', 'mail_admin', 'mail_admin_password'] );

$sql_select_policy = 'SELECT "Y" as local FROM domains WHERE CONCAT("@",domain) IN (%k)';

$sql_select_white_black_list = undef;  # undef disables SQL white/blacklisting

$recipient_delimiter = '+';                # (default is '+')

$replace_existing_extension = 1;        # (default is false)

$localpart_is_case_sensitive = 0;        # (default is false)
########################

# @storage_sql_dsn = @lookup_sql_dsn;  # none, same, or separate database

# $timestamp_fmt_mysql = 1; # if using MySQL *and* msgs.time_iso is TIMESTAMP;
#   defaults to 0, which is good for non-MySQL or if msgs.time_iso is CHAR(16)

$virus_admin               = undef;                    # notifications recip.

$mailfrom_notify_admin     = undef;                    # notifications sender
$mailfrom_notify_recip     = undef;                    # notifications sender
$mailfrom_notify_spamadmin = undef;                    # notifications sender
$mailfrom_to_quarantine = ''; # null return path; uses original sender if undef

@addr_extension_virus_maps      = ('virus');
@addr_extension_spam_maps       = ('spam');
@addr_extension_banned_maps     = ('banned');
@addr_extension_bad_header_maps = ('badh');
########################
$recipient_delimiter = undef;  # undef disables address extensions altogether
# when enabling addr extensions do also Postfix/main.cf: recipient_delimiter=+
########################


$path = '/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/bin';
# $dspam = 'dspam';

$MAXLEVELS = 14;
$MAXFILES = 1500;
$MIN_EXPANSION_QUOTA =      100*1024;  # bytes  (default undef, not enforced)
$MAX_EXPANSION_QUOTA = 300*1024*1024;  # bytes  (default undef, not enforced)

$sa_spam_subject_tag = '***SPAM*** ';
$defang_virus  = 1;  # MIME-wrap passed infected mail
$defang_banned = 1;  # MIME-wrap passed mail containing banned name


# OTHER MORE COMMON SETTINGS (defaults may suffice):

# $myhostname = 'host.example.com';  # must be a fully-qualified domain name!

# $notify_method  = 'smtp:[127.0.0.1]:10025';
# $forward_method = 'smtp:[127.0.0.1]:10025';  # set to undef with milter!

########################
$final_virus_destiny      = D_REJECT;
$final_banned_destiny     = D_REJECT;
$final_spam_destiny       = D_PASS;
$final_bad_header_destiny = D_PASS;
########################

# $os_fingerprint_method = 'p0f:127.0.0.1:2345';  # to query p0f-analyzer.pl

## hierarchy by which a final setting is chosen:
##   policy bank (based on port or IP address) -> *_by_ccat
##   *_by_ccat (based on mail contents) -> *_maps
##   *_maps (based on recipient address) -> final configuration value


# SOME OTHER VARIABLES WORTH CONSIDERING (see amavisd.conf-default for all)

# $warnbadhsender,
# $warnvirusrecip, $warnbannedrecip, $warnbadhrecip, (or @warn*recip_maps)
#
# @bypass_virus_checks_maps, @bypass_spam_checks_maps,
# @bypass_banned_checks_maps, @bypass_header_checks_maps,
#
# @virus_lovers_maps, @spam_lovers_maps,
# @banned_files_lovers_maps, @bad_header_lovers_maps,
#
# @blacklist_sender_maps, @score_sender_maps,
#
# $clean_quarantine_method, $virus_quarantine_to, $banned_quarantine_to,
# $bad_header_quarantine_to, $spam_quarantine_to,
#
# $defang_bad_header, $defang_undecipherable, $defang_spam


# REMAINING IMPORTANT VARIABLES ARE LISTED HERE BECAUSE OF LONGER ASSIGNMENTS

@keep_decoded_original_maps = (new_RE(
# qr'^MAIL$',   # retain full original message for virus checking (can be slow)
  qr'^MAIL-UNDECIPHERABLE$', # recheck full mail if it contains undecipherables
  qr'^(ASCII(?! cpio)|text|uuencoded|xxencoded|binhex)'i,
# qr'^Zip archive data',     # don't trust Archive::Zip
));


# for $banned_namepath_re, a new-style of banned table, see amavisd.conf-sample

$banned_filename_re = new_RE(
# qr'^UNDECIPHERABLE$',  # is or contains any undecipherable components

  # block certain double extensions anywhere in the base name
  qr'\.[^./]*[A-Za-z][^./]*\.(exe|vbs|pif|scr|bat|cmd|com|cpl|dll)\.?$'i,

# qr'\{[0-9a-f]{8}(-[0-9a-f]{4}){3}-[0-9a-f]{12}\}?'i, # Class ID CLSID, strict
# qr'\{[0-9a-z]{4,}(-[0-9a-z]{4,}){0,7}\}?'i, # Class ID extension CLSID, loose

  qr'^application/x-msdownload$'i,                  # block these MIME types
  qr'^application/x-msdos-program$'i,
  qr'^application/hta$'i,

# qr'^(application/x-msmetafile|image/x-wmf)$'i,    # Windows Metafile MIME
# qr'^\.wmf$',                            # Windows Metafile file(1) type

# qr'^message/partial$'i,         # rfc2046 MIME type
# qr'^message/external-body$'i,   # rfc2046 MIME type

# [ qr'^\.(Z|gz|bz2)$'           => 0 ],  # allow any in Unix-compressed
  [ qr'^\.(rpm|cpio|tar)$'       => 0 ],  # allow any in Unix-type archives
# [ qr'^\.(zip|rar|arc|arj|zoo)$'=> 0 ],  # allow any within such archives

  qr'.\.(exe|vbs|pif|scr|bat|cmd|com|cpl)$'i, # banned extension - basic
# qr'.\.(ade|adp|app|bas|bat|chm|cmd|com|cpl|crt|emf|exe|fxp|grp|hlp|hta|
#        inf|ins|isp|js|jse|lnk|mda|mdb|mde|mdw|mdt|mdz|msc|msi|msp|mst|
#        ops|pcd|pif|prg|reg|scr|sct|shb|shs|vb|vbe|vbs|
#        wmf|wsc|wsf|wsh)$'ix,  # banned ext - long

# qr'.\.(mim|b64|bhx|hqx|xxe|uu|uue)$'i,  # banned extension - WinZip vulnerab.

  qr'^\.(exe-ms)$',                       # banned file(1) types
# qr'^\.(exe|lha|tnef|cab|dll)$',         # banned file(1) types
);
# See http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;EN-US;q262631
# and http://www.cknow.com/vtutor/vtextensions.htm


# ENVELOPE SENDER SOFT-WHITELISTING / SOFT-BLACKLISTING

@score_sender_maps = ({ # a by-recipient hash lookup table,
                        # results from all matching recipient tables are summed

# ## per-recipient personal tables  (NOTE: positive: black, negative: white)
# 'user1@example.com'  => [{'bla-mobile.press@example.com' => 10.0}],
# 'user3@example.com'  => [{'.ebay.com'                 => -3.0}],
# 'user4@example.com'  => [{'cleargreen@cleargreen.com' => -7.0,
#                           '.cleargreen.com'           => -5.0}],

  ## site-wide opinions about senders (the '.' matches any recipient)
  '.' => [  # the _first_ matching sender determines the score boost

   new_RE(  # regexp-type lookup table, just happens to be all soft-blacklist
    [qr'^(bulkmail|offers|cheapbenefits|earnmoney|foryou)@'i         => 5.0],
    [qr'^(greatcasino|investments|lose_weight_today|market\.alert)@'i=> 5.0],
    [qr'^(money2you|MyGreenCard|new\.tld\.registry|opt-out|opt-in)@'i=> 5.0],
    [qr'^(optin|saveonlsmoking2002k|specialoffer|specialoffers)@'i   => 5.0],
    [qr'^(stockalert|stopsnoring|wantsome|workathome|yesitsfree)@'i  => 5.0],
    [qr'^(your_friend|greatoffers)@'i                                => 5.0],
    [qr'^(inkjetplanet|marketopt|MakeMoney)\d*@'i                    => 5.0],
   ),

#  read_hash("/var/amavis/sender_scores_sitewide"),

   { # a hash-type lookup table (associative array)
     'nobody@cert.org'                        => -3.0,
     'cert-advisory@us-cert.gov'              => -3.0,
     'owner-alert@iss.net'                    => -3.0,
     'slashdot@slashdot.org'                  => -3.0,
     'securityfocus.com'                      => -3.0,
     'ntbugtraq@listserv.ntbugtraq.com'       => -3.0,
     'security-alerts@linuxsecurity.com'      => -3.0,
     'mailman-announce-admin@python.org'      => -3.0,
     'amavis-user-admin@lists.sourceforge.net'=> -3.0,
     'amavis-user-bounces@lists.sourceforge.net' => -3.0,
     'spamassassin.apache.org'                => -3.0,
     'notification-return@lists.sophos.com'   => -3.0,
     'owner-postfix-users@postfix.org'        => -3.0,
     'owner-postfix-announce@postfix.org'     => -3.0,
     'owner-sendmail-announce@lists.sendmail.org'   => -3.0,
     'sendmail-announce-request@lists.sendmail.org' => -3.0,
     'donotreply@sendmail.org'                => -3.0,
     'ca+envelope@sendmail.org'               => -3.0,
     'noreply@freshmeat.net'                  => -3.0,
     'owner-technews@postel.acm.org'          => -3.0,
     'ietf-123-owner@loki.ietf.org'           => -3.0,
     'cvs-commits-list-admin@gnome.org'       => -3.0,
     'rt-users-admin@lists.fsck.com'          => -3.0,
     'clp-request@comp.nus.edu.sg'            => -3.0,
     'surveys-errors@lists.nua.ie'            => -3.0,
     'emailnews@genomeweb.com'                => -5.0,
     'yahoo-dev-null@yahoo-inc.com'           => -3.0,
     'returns.groups.yahoo.com'               => -3.0,
     'clusternews@linuxnetworx.com'           => -3.0,
     lc('lvs-users-admin@LinuxVirtualServer.org')    => -3.0,
     lc('owner-textbreakingnews@CNNIMAIL12.CNN.COM') => -5.0,

     # soft-blacklisting (positive score)
     'sender@example.net'                     =>  3.0,
     '.example.net'                           =>  1.0,

   },
  ],  # end of site-wide tables
});


@decoders = (
  ['mail', \&do_mime_decode],
  ['asc',  \&do_ascii],
  ['uue',  \&do_ascii],
  ['hqx',  \&do_ascii],
  ['ync',  \&do_ascii],
  ['F',    \&do_uncompress, ['unfreeze','freeze -d','melt','fcat'] ],
  ['Z',    \&do_uncompress, ['uncompress','gzip -d','zcat'] ],
  ['gz',   \&do_uncompress,  'gzip -d'],
  ['gz',   \&do_gunzip],
  ['bz2',  \&do_uncompress,  'bzip2 -d'],
  ['lzo',  \&do_uncompress,  'lzop -d'],
  ['rpm',  \&do_uncompress, ['rpm2cpio.pl','rpm2cpio'] ],
  ['cpio', \&do_pax_cpio,   ['pax','gcpio','cpio'] ],
  ['tar',  \&do_pax_cpio,   ['pax','gcpio','cpio'] ],
  ['tar',  \&do_tar],
  ['deb',  \&do_ar,          'ar'],
# ['a',    \&do_ar,          'ar'],  # unpacking .a seems an overkill
  ['zip',  \&do_unzip],
  ['rar',  \&do_unrar,      ['rar','unrar'] ],
  ['arj',  \&do_unarj,      ['arj','unarj'] ],
  ['arc',  \&do_arc,        ['nomarch','arc'] ],
  ['zoo',  \&do_zoo,        ['zoo','unzoo'] ],
  ['lha',  \&do_lha,         'lha'],
# ['doc',  \&do_ole,         'ripole'],
  ['cab',  \&do_cabextract,  'cabextract'],
  ['tnef', \&do_tnef_ext,    'tnef'],
  ['tnef', \&do_tnef],
# ['sit',  \&do_unstuff,     'unstuff'],  # broken/unsafe decoder
  ['exe',  \&do_executable, ['rar','unrar'], 'lha', ['arj','unarj'] ],
);


@av_scanners = (

# ### http://www.vanja.com/tools/sophie/
# ['Sophie',
#   \&ask_daemon, ["{}/\n", '/var/run/sophie'],
#   qr/(?x)^ 0+ ( : | [\000\r\n]* $)/,  qr/(?x)^ 1 ( : | [\000\r\n]* $)/,
#   qr/(?x)^ [-+]? \d+ : (.*?) [\000\r\n]* $/ ],

# ### http://www.csupomona.edu/~henson/www/projects/SAVI-Perl/
# ['Sophos SAVI', \&sophos_savi ],

# ### http://www.clamav.net/
['ClamAV-clamd',
  \&ask_daemon, ["CONTSCAN {}\n", "/var/spool/amavisd/clamd.sock"],
  qr/\bOK$/, qr/\bFOUND$/,
  qr/^.*?: (?!Infected Archive)(.*) FOUND$/ ],
# # NOTE: the easiest is to run clamd under the same user as amavisd; match the
# # socket name (LocalSocket) in clamav.conf to the socket name in this entry
# # When running chrooted one may prefer: ["CONTSCAN {}\n","$MYHOME/clamd"],

# ### http://www.clamav.net/ and CPAN  (memory-hungry! clamd is preferred)
# ['Mail::ClamAV', \&ask_clamav, "*", [0], [1], qr/^INFECTED: (.+)/],

# ### http://www.openantivirus.org/
# ['OpenAntiVirus ScannerDaemon (OAV)',
#   \&ask_daemon, ["SCAN {}\n", '127.0.0.1:8127'],
#   qr/^OK/, qr/^FOUND: /, qr/^FOUND: (.+)/ ],

# ### http://www.vanja.com/tools/trophie/
# ['Trophie',
#   \&ask_daemon, ["{}/\n", '/var/run/trophie'],
#   qr/(?x)^ 0+ ( : | [\000\r\n]* $)/,  qr/(?x)^ 1 ( : | [\000\r\n]* $)/,
#   qr/(?x)^ [-+]? \d+ : (.*?) [\000\r\n]* $/ ],

# ### http://www.grisoft.com/
# ['AVG Anti-Virus',
#   \&ask_daemon, ["SCAN {}\n", '127.0.0.1:55555'],
#   qr/^200/, qr/^403/, qr/^403 .*?: ([^\r\n]+)/ ],

# ### http://www.f-prot.com/
# ['FRISK F-Prot Daemon',
#   \&ask_daemon,
#   ["GET {}/*?-dumb%20-archive%20-packed HTTP/1.0\r\n\r\n",
#     ['127.0.0.1:10200','127.0.0.1:10201','127.0.0.1:10202',
#      '127.0.0.1:10203','127.0.0.1:10204'] ],
#   qr/(?i)<summary[^>]*>clean<\/summary>/,
#   qr/(?i)<summary[^>]*>infected<\/summary>/,
#   qr/(?i)<name>(.+)<\/name>/ ],

# ### http://www.sald.com/, http://www.dials.ru/english/, http://www.drweb.ru/
# ['DrWebD', \&ask_daemon,   # DrWebD 4.31 or later
#   [pack('N',1).  # DRWEBD_SCAN_CMD
#    pack('N',0x00280001).   # DONT_CHANGEMAIL, IS_MAIL, RETURN_VIRUSES
#    pack('N',     # path length
#      length("$TEMPBASE/amavis-yyyymmddTHHMMSS-xxxxx/parts/pxxx")).
#    '{}/*'.       # path
#    pack('N',0).  # content size
#    pack('N',0),
#    '/var/drweb/run/drwebd.sock',
#  # '/var/amavis/var/run/drwebd.sock',   # suitable for chroot
#  # '/usr/local/drweb/run/drwebd.sock',  # FreeBSD drweb ports default
#  # '127.0.0.1:3000',                    # or over an inet socket
#   ],
#   qr/\A\x00[\x10\x11][\x00\x10]\x00/s,         # IS_CLEAN,EVAL_KEY; SKIPPED
#   qr/\A\x00[\x00\x01][\x00\x10][\x20\x40\x80]/s, # KNOWN_V,UNKNOWN_V,V._MODIF
#   qr/\A.{12}(?:infected with )?([^\x00]+)\x00/s,
# ],
# # NOTE: If using amavis-milter, change length to:
# # length("$TEMPBASE/amavis-milter-xxxxxxxxxxxxxx/parts/pxxx").

  ### http://www.kaspersky.com/  (kav4mailservers)
  ['KasperskyLab AVP - aveclient',
    ['/usr/local/kav/bin/aveclient','/usr/local/share/kav/bin/aveclient',
     '/opt/kav/bin/aveclient','aveclient'],
    '-p /var/run/aveserver -s {}/*', [0,3,6,8], qr/\b(INFECTED|SUSPICION)\b/,
    qr/(?:INFECTED|SUSPICION) (.+)/,
  ],

  ### http://www.kaspersky.com/
  ['KasperskyLab AntiViral Toolkit Pro (AVP)', ['avp'],
    '-* -P -B -Y -O- {}', [0,3,6,8], [2,4],    # any use for -A -K   ?
    qr/infected: (.+)/,
    sub {chdir('/opt/AVP') or die "Can't chdir to AVP: $!"},
    sub {chdir($TEMPBASE) or die "Can't chdir back to $TEMPBASE $!"},
  ],

  ### The kavdaemon and AVPDaemonClient have been removed from Kasperky
  ### products and replaced by aveserver and aveclient
  ['KasperskyLab AVPDaemonClient',
    [ '/opt/AVP/kavdaemon',       'kavdaemon',
      '/opt/AVP/AvpDaemonClient', 'AvpDaemonClient',
      '/opt/AVP/AvpTeamDream',    'AvpTeamDream',
      '/opt/AVP/avpdc', 'avpdc' ],
    "-f=$TEMPBASE {}", [0,8], [3,4,5,6], qr/infected: ([^\r\n]+)/ ],
    # change the startup-script in /etc/init.d/kavd to:
    #   DPARMS="-* -Y -dl -f=/var/amavis /var/amavis"
    #   (or perhaps:   DPARMS="-I0 -Y -* /var/amavis" )
    # adjusting /var/amavis above to match your $TEMPBASE.
    # The '-f=/var/amavis' is needed if not running it as root, so it
    # can find, read, and write its pid file, etc., see 'man kavdaemon'.
    # defUnix.prf: there must be an entry "*/var/amavis" (or whatever
    #   directory $TEMPBASE specifies) in the 'Names=' section.
    # cd /opt/AVP/DaemonClients; configure; cd Sample; make
    # cp AvpDaemonClient /opt/AVP/
    # su - vscan -c "${PREFIX}/kavdaemon ${DPARMS}"

  ### http://www.centralcommand.com/
  ['CentralCommand Vexira (new) vascan',
    ['vascan','/usr/lib/Vexira/vascan'],
    "-a s --timeout=60 --temp=$TEMPBASE -y $QUARANTINEDIR ".
    "--vdb=/usr/lib/Vexira/vexira8.vdb --log=/var/log/vascan.log {}",
    [0,3], [1,2,5],
    qr/(?x)^\s* (?:virus|iworm|macro|mutant|sequence|trojan)\ found:\ ( [^\]\s']+ )\ \.\.\.\ / ],
    # Adjust the path of the binary and the virus database as needed.
    # 'vascan' does not allow to have the temp directory to be the same as
    # the quarantine directory, and the quarantine option can not be disabled.
    # If $QUARANTINEDIR is not used, then another directory must be specified
    # to appease 'vascan'. Move status 3 to the second list if password
    # protected files are to be considered infected.

  ### http://www.hbedv.com/
  ['H+BEDV AntiVir or the (old) CentralCommand Vexira Antivirus',
    ['antivir','vexira'],
    '--allfiles -noboot -nombr -rs -s -z {}', [0], qr/ALERT:|VIRUS:/,
    qr/(?x)^\s* (?: ALERT: \s* (?: \[ | [^']* ' ) |
         (?i) VIRUS:\ .*?\ virus\ '?) ( [^\]\s']+ )/ ],
    # NOTE: if you only have a demo version, remove -z and add 214, as in:
    #  '--allfiles -noboot -nombr -rs -s {}', [0,214], qr/ALERT:|VIRUS:/,

  ### http://www.commandsoftware.com/
  ['Command AntiVirus for Linux', 'csav',
    '-all -archive -packed {}', [50], [51,52,53],
    qr/Infection: (.+)/ ],

  ### http://www.symantec.com/
  ['Symantec CarrierScan via Symantec CommandLineScanner',
    'cscmdline', '-a scan -i 1 -v -s 127.0.0.1:7777 {}',
    qr/^Files Infected:\s+0$/, qr/^Infected\b/,
    qr/^(?:Info|Virus Name):\s+(.+)/ ],

  ### http://www.symantec.com/
  ['Symantec AntiVirus Scan Engine',
    'savsecls', '-server 127.0.0.1:7777 -mode scanrepair -details -verbose {}',
    [0], qr/^Infected\b/,
    qr/^(?:Info|Virus Name):\s+(.+)/ ],
    # NOTE: check options and patterns to see which entry better applies

  ### http://www.f-secure.com/products/anti-virus/
  ['F-Secure Antivirus', 'fsav',
    '--dumb --mime --archive {}', [0], [3,8],
    qr/(?:infection|Infected|Suspected): (.+)/ ],

# ### http://www.avast.com/
# ['avast! Antivirus daemon',
#   \&ask_daemon,        # greets with 220, terminate with QUIT
#   ["SCAN {}\015\012QUIT\015\012", '/var/run/avast4/mailscanner.sock'],
#   qr/\t\[\+\]/, qr/\t\[L\]\t/, qr/\t\[L\]\t([^[ \t\015\012]+)/ ],

# ### http://www.avast.com/
# ['avast! Antivirus - Client/Server Version', 'avastlite',
#   '-a /var/run/avast4/mailscanner.sock -n {}', [0], [1],
#   qr/\t\[L\]\t([^[ \t\015\012]+)/ ],

  ['CAI InoculateIT', 'inocucmd',  # retired product
    '-sec -nex {}', [0], [100],
    qr/was infected by virus (.+)/ ],
  # see: http://www.flatmtn.com/computer/Linux-Antivirus_CAI.html

  ### http://www3.ca.com/Solutions/Product.asp?ID=156  (ex InoculateIT)
  ['CAI eTrust Antivirus', 'etrust-wrapper',
    '-arc -nex -spm h {}', [0], [101],
    qr/is infected by virus: (.+)/ ],
    # NOTE: requires suid wrapper around inocmd32; consider flag: -mod reviewer
    # see http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=amavis-user&m=109229779912783

  ### http://mks.com.pl/english.html
  ['MkS_Vir for Linux (beta)', ['mks32','mks'],
    '-s {}/*', [0], [1,2],
    qr/--[ \t]*(.+)/ ],

  ### http://mks.com.pl/english.html
  ['MkS_Vir daemon', 'mksscan',
    '-s -q {}', [0], [1..7],
    qr/^... (\S+)/ ],

  ### http://www.nod32.com/
  ['ESET Software NOD32 Command Line Interface v 2.51', 'nod32cli',
    '--subdir {}', [0,3], [1,2], qr/virus="([^"]+)"/ ],

# ### http://www.nod32.com/   old
# ['ESET Software NOD32 - Client/Server Version', 'nod32cli',
#   '-a -r -d recurse --heur standard {}', [0], [10,11],
#   qr/^\S+\s+infected:\s+(.+)/ ],

# ### http://www.nod32.com/   old
# ['ESET Software NOD32', 'nod32',
#   '--arch --mail {}', [0], [1,10], qr/^object=.*, virus="(.*?)",/ ],

# Experimental, based on posting from Rado Dibarbora (Dibo) on 2002-05-31
# ['ESET Software NOD32 Client/Server (NOD32SS)',
#   \&ask_daemon2,    # greets with 200, persistent, terminate with QUIT
#   ["SCAN {}/*\r\n", '127.0.0.1:8448' ],
#   qr/^200 File OK/, qr/^201 /, qr/^201 (.+)/ ],

  ### http://www.norman.com/products_nvc.shtml
  ['Norman Virus Control v5 / Linux', 'nvcc',
    '-c -l:0 -s -u -temp:$TEMPBASE {}', [0,10,11], [1,2,14],
    qr/(?i).* virus in .* -> \'(.+)\'/ ],

  ### http://www.pandasoftware.com/
  ['Panda Antivirus for Linux', ['pavcl'],
    '-aut -aex -heu -cmp -nbr -nor -nso -eng {}',
    qr/Number of files infected[ .]*: 0+(?!\d)/,
    qr/Number of files infected[ .]*: 0*[1-9]/,
    qr/Found virus :\s*(\S+)/ ],

# ### http://www.pandasoftware.com/
# ['Panda Antivirus for Linux', ['pavcl'],
#   '-TSR -aut -aex -heu -cmp -nbr -nor -nso -eng {}',
#   [0], [0x10, 0x30, 0x50, 0x70, 0x90, 0xB0, 0xD0, 0xF0],
#   qr/Found virus :\s*(\S+)/ ],

# GeCAD AV technology is acquired by Microsoft; RAV has been discontinued.
# Check your RAV license terms before fiddling with the following two lines!
# ['GeCAD RAV AntiVirus 8', 'ravav',
#   '--all --archive --mail {}', [1], [2,3,4,5], qr/Infected: (.+)/ ],
# # NOTE: the command line switches changed with scan engine 8.5 !
# # (btw, assigning stdin to /dev/null causes RAV to fail)

  ### http://www.nai.com/
  ['NAI McAfee AntiVirus (uvscan)', 'uvscan',
    '--secure -rv --mime --summary --noboot - {}', [0], [13],
    qr/(?x) Found (?:
        \ the\ (.+)\ (?:virus|trojan)  |
        \ (?:virus|trojan)\ or\ variant\ (.+?)\s*! |
        :\ (.+)\ NOT\ a\ virus)/,
  # sub {$ENV{LD_PRELOAD}='/lib/libc.so.6'},
  # sub {delete $ENV{LD_PRELOAD}},
  ],
  # NOTE1: with RH9: force the dynamic linker to look at /lib/libc.so.6 before
  # anything else by setting environment variable LD_PRELOAD=/lib/libc.so.6
  # and then clear it when finished to avoid confusing anything else.
  # NOTE2: to treat encrypted files as viruses replace the [13] with:
  #  qr/^\s{5,}(Found|is password-protected|.*(virus|trojan))/

  ### http://www.virusbuster.hu/en/
  ['VirusBuster', ['vbuster', 'vbengcl'],
    "{} -ss -i '*' -log=$MYHOME/vbuster.log", [0], [1],
    qr/: '(.*)' - Virus/ ],
  # VirusBuster Ltd. does not support the daemon version for the workstation
  # engine (vbuster-eng-1.12-linux-i386-libc6.tgz) any longer. The names of
  # binaries, some parameters AND return codes have changed (from 3 to 1).
  # See also the new Vexira entry 'vascan' which is possibly related.

# ### http://www.virusbuster.hu/en/
# ['VirusBuster (Client + Daemon)', 'vbengd',
#   '-f -log scandir {}', [0], [3],
#   qr/Virus found = (.*);/ ],
# # HINT: for an infected file it always returns 3,
# # although the man-page tells a different story

  ### http://www.cyber.com/
  ['CyberSoft VFind', 'vfind',
    '--vexit {}/*', [0], [23], qr/##==>>>> VIRUS ID: CVDL (.+)/,
  # sub {$ENV{VSTK_HOME}='/usr/lib/vstk'},
  ],

  ### http://www.avast.com/
  ['avast! Antivirus', ['/usr/bin/avastcmd','avastcmd'],
    '-a -i -n -t=A {}', [0], [1], qr/\binfected by:\s+([^ \t\n\[\]]+)/ ],

  ### http://www.ikarus-software.com/
  ['Ikarus AntiVirus for Linux', 'ikarus',
    '{}', [0], [40], qr/Signature (.+) found/ ],

  ### http://www.bitdefender.com/
  ['BitDefender', 'bdc',
    '--arc --mail {}', qr/^Infected files *:0+(?!\d)/,
    qr/^(?:Infected files|Identified viruses|Suspect files) *:0*[1-9]/,
    qr/(?:suspected|infected): (.*)(?:\033|$)/ ],
  # consider also: --all --nowarn --alev=15 --flev=15.  The --all argument may
  # not apply to your version of bdc, check documentation and see 'bdc --help'

# ['File::Scan', sub {Amavis::AV::ask_av(sub{
#   use File::Scan; my($fn)=@_;
#   my($f)=File::Scan->new(max_txt_size=>0, max_bin_size=>0);
#   my($vname) = $f->scan($fn);
#   $f->error ? (2,"Error: ".$f->error)
#   : ($vname ne '') ? (1,"$vname FOUND") : (0,"Clean")}, @_) },
#   ["{}/*"], [0], [1], qr/^(.*) FOUND$/ ],

# ### example: fully-fledged checker for JPEG marker segments of invalid length
# ['check-jpeg',
#   sub { use JpegTester (); Amavis::AV::ask_av(\&JpegTester::test_jpeg, @_) },
#   ["{}/*"], undef, [1], qr/^(bad jpeg: .*)$/ ],
# # NOTE: place file JpegTester.pm somewhere where Perl can find it,
# #       for example in /usr/local/lib/perl5/site_perl

);


@av_scanners_backup = (

  ### http://www.clamav.net/   - backs up clamd or Mail::ClamAV
  ['ClamAV-clamscan', 'clamscan',
    "--stdout --disable-summary -r --tempdir=$TEMPBASE {}",
    [0], qr/:.*\sFOUND$/, qr/^.*?: (?!Infected Archive)(.*) FOUND$/ ],

  ### http://www.f-prot.com/   - backs up F-Prot Daemon
  ['FRISK F-Prot Antivirus', ['f-prot','f-prot.sh'],
    '-dumb -archive -packed {}', [0,8], [3,6],
    qr/Infection: (.+)|\s+contains\s+(.+)$/ ],

  ### http://www.trendmicro.com/   - backs up Trophie
  ['Trend Micro FileScanner', ['/etc/iscan/vscan','vscan'],
    '-za -a {}', [0], qr/Found virus/, qr/Found virus (.+) in/ ],

  ### http://www.sald.com/, http://drweb.imshop.de/   - backs up DrWebD
  ['drweb - DrWeb Antivirus',
    ['/usr/local/drweb/drweb', '/opt/drweb/drweb', 'drweb'],
    '-path={} -al -go -ot -cn -upn -ok-',
    [0,32], [1,9,33], qr' infected (?:with|by)(?: virus)? (.*)$'],

  ['KasperskyLab kavscanner', ['/opt/kav/bin/kavscanner','kavscanner'],
    '-i1 -xp {}', [0,10,15], [5,20,21,25],
    qr/(?:CURED|INFECTED|CUREFAILED|WARNING|SUSPICION) (.*)/ ,
    sub {chdir('/opt/kav/bin') or die "Can't chdir to kav: $!"},
    sub {chdir($TEMPBASE) or die "Can't chdir back to $TEMPBASE $!"},
  ],

# Commented out because the name 'sweep' clashes with Debian and FreeBSD
# package/port of an audio editor. Make sure the correct 'sweep' is found
# in the path when enabling.
#
# ### http://www.sophos.com/   - backs up Sophie or SAVI-Perl
# ['Sophos Anti Virus (sweep)', 'sweep',
#   '-nb -f -all -rec -ss -sc -archive -cab -tnef --no-reset-atime {}',
#   [0,2], qr/Virus .*? found/,
#   qr/^>>> Virus(?: fragment)? '?(.*?)'? found/,
# ],
# # other options to consider: -mime -oe -idedir=/usr/local/sav

# always succeeds (uncomment to consider mail clean if all other scanners fail)
# ['always-clean', sub {0}],

);


1;  # insure a defined return

amavisd-new is the program that glues together Postfix and SpamAssassin/ClamAV. Postfix passes the mails to amavisd-new which then invokes SpamAssassin and ClamAV to scan the emails. Please have a look at the Spamassassin and ClamAV settings in /etc/amavisd/amavisd.conf. Of course, you can customize that file a lot more. Feel free to do so, and have a look at the explanations in the original /etc/amavisd/amavisd.conf file!

When we installed ClamAV, a cron job got installed that tries to update the ClamAV virus database every three hours. But this works only if we enable it in /etc/sysconfig/freshclam and /etc/freshclam.conf:

vi /etc/sysconfig/freshclam

Comment out the FRESHCLAM_DELAY line at the end:

## When changing the periodicity of freshclam runs in the crontab,
## this value must be adjusted also. Its value is the timespan between
## two subsequent freshclam runs in minutes. E.g. for the default
##
## | 0 */3 * * *  ...
##
## crontab line, the value is 180 (minutes).
# FRESHCLAM_MOD=

## A predefined value for the delay in seconds. By default, the value is
## calculated by the 'hostid' program. This predefined value guarantees
## constant timespans of 3 hours between two subsequent freshclam runs.
##
## This option accepts two special values:
## 'disabled-warn'  ...  disables the automatic freshclam update and
##                         gives out a warning
## 'disabled'       ...  disables the automatic freshclam silently
# FRESHCLAM_DELAY=


### !!!!! REMOVE ME !!!!!!
### REMOVE ME: By default, the freshclam update is disabled to avoid
### REMOVE ME: network access without prior activation
#FRESHCLAM_DELAY=disabled-warn  # REMOVE ME

vi /etc/freshclam.conf

Comment out the Example line:

[...]
# Comment or remove the line below.
#Example
[...]

Now let’s create the system startup links for ClamAV and amavisd-new, update ClamAV’s virus signature database, and start both services:

chkconfig –levels 235 amavisd on
chkconfig –levels 235 clamd.amavisd on
/usr/bin/freshclam
/etc/init.d/amavisd start
/etc/init.d/clamd.amavisd start

Now we have to configure Postfix to pipe incoming email through amavisd-new:

postconf -e ‘content_filter = amavis:[127.0.0.1]:10024’
postconf -e ‘receive_override_options = no_address_mappings’

Afterwards append the following lines to /etc/postfix/master.cf:

vi /etc/postfix/master.cf

[...]
amavis unix - - - - 2 smtp
        -o smtp_data_done_timeout=1200
        -o smtp_send_xforward_command=yes

127.0.0.1:10025 inet n - - - - smtpd
        -o content_filter=
        -o local_recipient_maps=
        -o relay_recipient_maps=
        -o smtpd_restriction_classes=
        -o smtpd_client_restrictions=
        -o smtpd_helo_restrictions=
        -o smtpd_sender_restrictions=
        -o smtpd_recipient_restrictions=permit_mynetworks,reject
        -o mynetworks=127.0.0.0/8
        -o strict_rfc821_envelopes=yes
        -o receive_override_options=no_unknown_recipient_checks,no_header_body_checks
        -o smtpd_bind_address=127.0.0.1

and restart Postfix:

/etc/init.d/postfix restart

11 Install Razor, Pyzor And DCC And Configure SpamAssassin

Razor, Pyzor and DCC are spamfilters that use a collaborative filtering network. To install Razor and Pyzor, run

yum install perl-Razor-Agent pyzor

Then initialize both services:

chmod -R a+rX /usr/share/doc/pyzor-0.4.0 /usr/bin/pyzor /usr/bin/pyzord
chmod -R a+rX /usr/lib/python2.4/site-packages/pyzor
su -m amavis -c ‘pyzor –homedir /var/spool/amavisd discover’
su -m amavis -c ‘razor-admin -home=/var/spool/amavisd -create’
su -m amavis -c ‘razor-admin -home=/var/spool/amavisd -register’

(You might have to run the last command twice if the first attempt fails.)

Then we install DCC as follows:

cd /tmp
wget http://www.dcc-servers.net/dcc/source/dcc-dccproc.tar.Z
tar xzvf dcc-dccproc.tar.Z
cd dcc-dccproc-1.3.42
./configure –with-uid=amavis
make
make install
chown -R amavis:amavis /var/dcc
ln -s /var/dcc/libexec/dccifd /usr/local/bin/dccifd

Now we have to tell SpamAssassin to use these three programs. Edit /etc/mail/spamassassin/local.cf so that it looks like this:

vi /etc/mail/spamassassin/local.cf

# These values can be overridden by editing ~/.spamassassin/user_prefs.cf
# (see spamassassin(1) for details)

# These should be safe assumptions and allow for simple visual sifting
# without risking lost emails.

#required_hits 5
#report_safe 0
#rewrite_header Subject [SPAM]

# dcc
use_dcc 1
dcc_path /usr/local/bin/dccproc
dcc_add_header 1
dcc_dccifd_path /usr/local/bin/dccifd

#pyzor
use_pyzor 1
pyzor_path /usr/bin/pyzor
pyzor_add_header 1

#razor
use_razor2 1
razor_config /var/spool/amavisd/razor-agent.conf

#bayes
use_bayes 1
use_bayes_rules 1
bayes_auto_learn 1

Run

/etc/init.d/amavisd restart

afterwards.

Now I want to insert some custom rulesets that can be found on the internet into SpamAssassin. I have tested those rulesets, and they make spam filtering a lot more effective. Create the file /usr/local/sbin/sa_rules_update.sh:

vi /usr/local/sbin/sa_rules_update.sh

#!/bin/sh
PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/71_sare_redirect_pre3.0.0.cf -O 71_sare_redirect_pre3.0.0.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/70_sare_bayes_poison_nxm.cf -O 70_sare_bayes_poison_nxm.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/70_sare_html.cf -O 70_sare_html.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/70_sare_html4.cf -O 70_sare_html4.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/70_sare_html_x30.cf -O 70_sare_html_x30.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/70_sare_header0.cf -O 70_sare_header0.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/70_sare_header3.cf -O 70_sare_header3.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/70_sare_header_x30.cf -O 70_sare_header_x30.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/70_sare_specific.cf -O 70_sare_specific.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/70_sare_adult.cf -O 70_sare_adult.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/72_sare_bml_post25x.cf -O 72_sare_bml_post25x.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/99_sare_fraud_post25x.cf -O 99_sare_fraud_post25x.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/70_sare_spoof.cf -O 70_sare_spoof.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/70_sare_random.cf -O 70_sare_random.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/70_sare_oem.cf -O 70_sare_oem.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/70_sare_genlsubj0.cf -O 70_sare_genlsubj0.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/70_sare_genlsubj3.cf -O 70_sare_genlsubj3.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/70_sare_genlsubj_x30.cf -O 70_sare_genlsubj_x30.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/70_sare_unsub.cf -O 70_sare_unsub.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/70_sare_uri.cf -O 70_sare_uri.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://mywebpages.comcast.net/mkettler/sa/antidrug.cf -O antidrug.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.timj.co.uk/linux/bogus-virus-warnings.cf -O bogus-virus-warnings.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.yackley.org/sa-rules/evilnumbers.cf -O evilnumbers.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.stearns.org/sa-blacklist/random.current.cf -O random.current.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/88_FVGT_body.cf -O 88_FVGT_body.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/88_FVGT_rawbody.cf -O 88_FVGT_rawbody.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/88_FVGT_subject.cf -O 88_FVGT_subject.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/88_FVGT_headers.cf -O 88_FVGT_headers.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/88_FVGT_uri.cf -O 88_FVGT_uri.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/99_FVGT_DomainDigits.cf -O 99_FVGT_DomainDigits.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/99_FVGT_Tripwire.cf -O 99_FVGT_Tripwire.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.rulesemporium.com/rules/99_FVGT_meta.cf -O 99_FVGT_meta.cf &> /dev/null

cd /etc/mail/spamassassin/ &> /dev/null && /usr/bin/wget http://www.nospamtoday.com/download/mime_validate.cf -O mime_validate.cf &> /dev/null

/etc/init.d/amavis restart &> /dev/null

exit 0

Make the script executable:

chmod 755 /usr/local/sbin/sa_rules_update.sh

Then run that script once, it will fetch those rulesets and insert them into SpamAssassin:

/usr/local/sbin/sa_rules_update.sh

We create a cron job so that those rulesets will be updated regularly. Run

crontab -e

to open the cron job editor. Create following cron job:

23 4 */2 * * /usr/local/sbin/sa_rules_update.sh &> /dev/null

This will update the rulesets every second day at 4.23h.

 

12 Quota Exceedance Notifications

If you want to get notifications about all the email accounts that are over quota, then do this:

cd /usr/local/sbin/
wget http://puuhis.net/vhcs/quota.txt
mv quota.txt quota_notify
chmod 755 quota_notify

Open /usr/local/sbin/quota_notify and edit the variables at the top:

vi /usr/local/sbin/quota_notify

my $POSTFIX_CF = "/etc/postfix/main.cf";
my $MAILPROG = "/usr/sbin/sendmail -t";
my $WARNPERCENT = 80;
my @POSTMASTERS = ('postmaster@isp.tld');
my $CONAME = 'ISP.tld';
my $COADDR = 'postmaster@isp.tld';
my $SUADDR = 'postmaster@isp.tld';
my $MAIL_REPORT = 1;
my $MAIL_WARNING = 1;

Run

crontab -e

to create a cron job for that script:

0 0 * * * /usr/local/sbin/quota_notify &> /dev/null

13 Test Postfix

To see if Postfix is ready for SMTP-AUTH and TLS, run

telnet localhost 25

After you have established the connection to your Postfix mail server type

ehlo localhost

If you see the lines

250-STARTTLS

and

250-AUTH

everything is fine.

1

Type

quit

to return to the system’s shell.

 

14 Populate The Database And Test

To populate the database you can use the MySQL shell:

mysql -u root -p
USE mail;

At least you have to create entries in the tables domains and users:

INSERT INTO `domains` (`domain`) VALUES (‘example.com’);
INSERT INTO `users` (`email`, `password`, `quota`) VALUES (‘sales@example.com’, ENCRYPT(‘secret’), 10485760);

(Please take care you use the ENCRYPT syntax in the second INSERT statement in order to encrypt the password!)

If you want to make entries in the other two tables, that would look like this:

INSERT INTO `forwardings` (`source`, `destination`) VALUES (‘info@example.com’, ‘sales@example.com’);
INSERT INTO `transport` (`domain`, `transport`) VALUES (‘example.com’, ‘smtp:mail.example.com’);

To leave the MySQL shell, type

quit;

For most people it is easier if they have a graphical front-end to MySQL; therefore you can also use phpMyAdmin (in this example under http://192.168.0.100/phpmyadmin/ or http://server1.example.com/phpmyadmin/) to administrate the mail database. Again, when you create a user, go sure that you use the ENCRYPT function to encrypt the password:

2

I do not think I have to explain the domains and users table further.

The forwardings table can have entries like the following:
source destination
info@example.com sales@example.com Redirects emails for info@example.com to sales@example.com
@example.com thomas@example.com Creates a Catch-All account for thomas@example.com. All emails to example.com will arrive at thomas@example.com, except those that exist in the users table (i.e., if sales@example.com exists in the users table, mails to sales@example.com will still arrive at sales@example.com).
@example.com @anotherdomain.tld This redirects all emails to example.com to the same user at anotherdomain.tld. E.g., emails to thomas@example.com will be forwarded to thomas@anotherdomain.tld.
info@example.com sales@example.com, billing@anotherdomain.tld Forward emails for info@example.com to two or more email addresses. All listed email addresses under destination receive a copy of the email.

The transport table can have entries like these:
domain transport
example.com : Delivers emails for example.com locally. This is as if this record would not exist in this table at all.
example.com smtp:mail.anotherdomain.tld Delivers all emails for example.com via smtp to the server mail.anotherdomain.com.
example.com smtp:mail.anotherdomain.tld:2025 Delivers all emails for example.com via smtp to the server mail.anotherdomain.com, but on port 2025, not 25 which is the default port for smtp.
example.com

smtp:[1.2.3.4]
smtp:[1.2.3.4]:2025
smtp:[mail.anotherdomain.tld]
The square brackets prevent Postfix from doing lookups of the MX DNS record for the address in square brackets. Makes sense for IP addresses.
.example.com smtp:mail.anotherdomain.tld Mail for any subdomain of example.com is delivered to mail.anotherdomain.tld.
* smtp:mail.anotherdomain.tld All emails are delivered to mail.anotherdomain.tld.
joe@example.com smtp:mail.anotherdomain.tld Emails for joe@example.com are delivered to mail.anotherdomain.tld.

See

man transport

for more details.

Please keep in mind that the order of entries in the transport table is important! The entries will be followed from the top to the bottom.

Important: Postfix uses a caching mechanism for the transports, therefore it might take a while until you changes in the transport table take effect. If you want them to take effect immediately, run

postfix reload

after you have made your changes in the transport table.

 

 

 

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